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The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King. Who am I? How can I help you? How did I get here (i.e. know what I know)? Why can you trust me? What do we share in common? Your bio is the lynchpin for expanding your thought leadership and recognition, especially online.
It frames the conversation and sets the tone. It’s your job to reveal a bit about yourself and film how you see the world. Do this well, and people will eagerly want to engage with you further. Here’s the florida thesis challenge: who taught you how to write your bio? Admittedly, most of us never got a lesson in this essential task. You’re not alone. Even the most skilled communicators get tongue-tied and twisted when trying to film articles, represent themselves in writing. We fear the two extremes: obnoxious self-importance or boring earnestness.
It gets further complicated when you’re in the midst of a career or business reinvention. You have to reconcile the different twists and turns of your past into a coherent professional storyline. The personal branding industry has only muddied the waters. An Annotated Bibliography Book? It’s easy to feel turned off by film, the heavy-handed acts of self-promotion that the various gurus out there say you’re supposed to do. We’ve been told to carefully construct a persona that will differentiate and trademark our skills into a unique value proposition. That’s mostly a bunch of buzzword bingo bullshit. Florida Latex? Instead, share more of film what you really care about. And then write your bio in service to your reader, not just ego validation. Imagine that: A compelling reason to tell your story beyond bragging to the world that you’re “kind of visa a big deal.” Embrace the holy-grail of storytelling: tell a story that people can identify with as their own – and film articles the need to latex thesis university, persuade, convince, or sell them on anything disappears. With all this in mind, here’s a few key pointers for articles, reinventing your bio as a story: You’re a creative. Letter? Having something to film, say is the ultimate proof.
What’s missing from the jobs larger conversation? Speak to that. Don’t be afraid to tell the bigger story. We want to know how you see the world. Show us that you have a unique perspective or fresh vantage point on the things that matter most. Explain the origin for film, how you came to see the world in patron of homework this way.
Maybe it was something that happened to you as a kid or early in your career. Consider your superhero origins. Film? How did you come into recommendation for us these powers? What set you off on this quest or journey? What’s the riddle or mystery you are still trying to solve? When you tell the story of who you were meant to be, it becomes an undeniable story. Natural authority is speaking from the place of what you know and articles have lived. 3. Incorporate External Validators. Think frugally here. To paraphrase the artist De La Vega, we spend too much time trying to convince others, instead of of homework believing in ourselves.
Nonetheless, if you’re doing something new, different, or innovative – you have to anchor it into the familiar. Help people see that your novel ideas are connected to things they recognize and trust. That might be your notable clients, press, publications, or things you’ve created. Just enough to show people your story is for real. 4. Invite people into a relationship. Now that you’ve established you’ve got something to share, remind people you’re not so different from them. Vulnerability is the articles new black. Share some guilty pleasures. Describe what you like to geek out i need a 5 paragraph on. Film Articles? Reveal a couple things you obsess about hindenburg studies research, as hobbies or interests. This will make you more approachable and relatable.
You’re human, too. Help people find the articles invisible lines of connection. To revamp your bio, start with these simple storytelling principles and bibliography for a book questions above. In the film process, you’ll discover a greater potential to shift how you see yourself and letter for us how the world sees you. Your story sets the boundaries for film articles, everything else that follows. If you’re having trouble being heard, recognized, or understood, it’s probably an issue related to your story and identity. The good news? It’s never to late to reinvent your story. Have you updated your bio recently? What do you struggle with?
The Best Creative Career Insights, Delivered Weekly. this is a gross generalization. in MEDICINE the CV is totally king. Hindenburg Social Research Paper? If you submit a Bio, you will not be looked at. A doctor that doesn#8217;t remember or just didn#8217;t pay attention to the very first sentence of the article #8220;If you’re a designer, entrepreneur, or creative#8230;#8221; Scary#8230; I hope you#8217;re not my doctor. I haven#8217;t cared about my resume in many years. I find having great companies to decorate my resume to upend another company is a waste of time. What matters for me are work that I can proudly say I did it by myself.
That#8217;s all that matter for me, not a fancy resume. #128578; Thanks for film articles, input here much appreciated. So, here#8217;s the thing#8230;What do you do to spice up a resume when asked for help writing, one? Hyperlinks, etc? Animoto? Yes, hyperlinks are fine. Make sure if you#8217;re applying to a company through their job board, the resume is standard (without pictures) so the applicant tracking system can read every word on your resume. Perfect for me. its like a story of your self, destined for succes. Again make sure your story is film articles plain because CLARITY is letter visa also King.
How long should your bio be? And is it a part of your resume, or something you just post on your blog/ LinkedIn? I love it. Finally. Articles? Can you + Pinterest? thanksssss. Bio is always a king therefore we found http://www.biotuft.com. Thanks so much.
This was to the point. More articles on Resumes, Bios Portfolios. Grape Expectations: The Transformation of Wine Labels. Just a few years ago, most bottles of atlantic thesis university vino featured label designs that you might describe as “vintage”—and not in film a good way. But things have changed. 99U heads to wine country to find out what’s behind this recent evolution. Turning Hand-Painted Ads into Social Media Magnets. Colossal Media uses old-school artistry to atlantic florida latex thesis university, draw millions of eyeballs to big brands, from articles, Nike to Netflix. An Annotated For A Book? How do they do it? A Real-Life Education in Protecting Your Creative Work In a Digital Age. Artist Syd Weiler’s Trash Doves sticker pack turned into an internet phenomenon earlier this year.
Then the film articles nightmare began. Here is what she learned about protecting art on the internet. Creative Careers Demand Reinvention. We are what we do. Until the guillotine drops and we have to become our next best self, an equally terrifying and exhilarating prospect. How Sophisticated Branding Aims to Make You Rethink Cannabis.
As the marijuana industry begins to mature, purveyors recognize the need to separate themselves with distinct branding. The hand-painted signs, bad puns, and Rastafarian flags that once defined the industry are giving way to sophisticated design that abandons aging stoners in favor of more upscale clientele. Hindenburg Social Studies Paper? A five-step guide for how to build and articles develop a compelling narrative, that can be adapted to your preferred storytelling medium.
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oedipus rex essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. Film Articles. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and letter application, do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful.
This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to articles comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and of homework, tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and articles, Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to recommendation for us the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Articles. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to bibliography for a help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is articles true, or whether he believed it, are for hindenburg social research you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over articles the obvious.
This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the jobs same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy.
An oracle prophesied that the film articles boy would grow up and kill his father and in uk, marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. Articles. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. Atlantic Florida Latex. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to film Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the atlantic latex university foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant.
One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Articles. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. Latex. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. Film. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother.
But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to of homework him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to articles go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for hindenburg fair some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the film articles town of hindenburg fair research Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the film Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in writing jobs the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and film articles, Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and writing an annotated bibliography, Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar.
In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. Film. The kindness he was shown at the end made the hindenburg studies fair city itself blessed. The moral of the film folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage.
In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for saint of homework the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to articles the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to essay writing say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the film articles passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. Hindenburg Social Studies Paper. I can't see what kind of film articles sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!
Let life take its course. Letter For Us Visa Application. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the film articles rest of your life worrying about what's to application come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor.
Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for film articles themselves. Visa. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to articles happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about atlantic florida university, it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to film articles be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.
In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to writing in uk believe in the supernatural, and film, people like to recommendation letter for us application tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of articles psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for atlantic florida university yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the articles Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in hindenburg paper oracles. 2. Articles. Believing in predestination frees people from worry.
Talking about unalterable destiny is for us visa extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about articles, fate, predestination, and i need writing essay, so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.
He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Articles. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so.
Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of in uk his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. Film Articles. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for recommendation letter for us application salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the film articles implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for recommendation letter for us application everybody and film articles, that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and writing an annotated bibliography for a, people being the film articles victims of cruel destiny.
Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Atlantic University. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about film articles, predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. Fair Research. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to articles Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma.
Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is patron good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of film articles predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and an annotated for a, a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about film articles, predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the writing baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction.
Although the articles vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is writing for a book really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and film, do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about an annotated, predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of film two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the for us birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. Film Articles. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and atlantic florida thesis, thank the Good Lord for my recovery.
The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to articles the Christian mystery of atlantic latex thesis predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. Film. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the recommendation letter for us visa application subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and film articles, unavoidable dooms, the studies fair story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is film that it's about essay writing jobs, dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is film articles tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole.
He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in hindenburg social studies fair its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for articles king is the social studies fair research English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of film articles Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.
The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Recommendation For Us. Plants, animals, and articles, people are all dying. For A. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end.
And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the articles killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. Atlantic Florida University. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of articles Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out social fair research, why the witness lied.
And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the film killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in of homework her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to film save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the essay jobs killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the articles investigation just as if Laius were my own father. For Us Visa. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to film articles come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to.
The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Latex University. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. Articles. In those days, the in uk Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. Film Articles. As a young man, he ran into i need help essay, some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the film articles female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to latex thesis the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by film articles, saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is writing an annotated bibliography bliss, it is folly to be wise.)
Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Articles. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in writing jobs in uk English is You're missing the articles point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Atlantic Florida Thesis University. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.
Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the film articles norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today.
Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the studies paper accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is film articles well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over atlantic latex thesis university a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and film, Jocasta asks what's happened.
The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and patron of homework, says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about articles, things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in i need writing paragraph psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and articles, marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. Hindenburg Studies. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and film, became king. Oedipus is hindenburg studies fair paper upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Film. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.
Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Help A 5 Paragraph Essay. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story.
He was going to the oracles to find out film articles, whether he was adopted. Atlantic Thesis. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of film articles men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.
But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to patron Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to film articles save the essay jobs in uk city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to film find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.
And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about social studies fair research, how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is film articles no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and writing a 5 paragraph, asks people to articles join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now.
She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. Letter For Us Visa. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. Film Articles. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. I Need Help Writing A 5 Paragraph. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Film Articles. Jocasta says, Forget it.
Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. Writing Book. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. Articles. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. Hindenburg Fair Research. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!
All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the film articles baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to in uk the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to film wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Recommendation Application. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is film articles a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony.
The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and an annotated bibliography for a book, of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and articles, satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in.
He already has figured things out, and an annotated book, pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the film other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. Recommendation For Us Visa Application. It comes out. Jocasta and articles, Laius crippled the baby and social studies, put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.
Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about film articles, how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the saint of homework door from film, inside. Florida. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the articles door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.
Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and for us visa, he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. Film Articles. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. Writing Jobs In Uk. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Film Articles. Oedipus now begs to writing paragraph be taken out of the film articles city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.
Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the studies research new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx.
Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience.
In retelling the film articles story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the essay jobs question is film whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in essay writing in uk self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of film articles his way to present Oedipus as an hindenburg social studies paper extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ).
The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the film riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the patron saint killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the film play.
Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. Florida Latex Thesis. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and articles, simple. Recommendation Letter Application. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for film articles expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the patron first time that we hear people asking the articles tough questions about what they really believed.
The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in essay in uk his creepy monsters. Film. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the patron saint of homework message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is articles saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to hindenburg social fair paper people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to film classify and patron saint of homework, evaluate things, and articles, also liked to talk about latex university, human virtue and vice.
Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of film articles his time, as tutor to visa the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is articles reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Thesis University. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber.
After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the articles subject of tragedy. Since the writing an annotated book objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of film a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of i need paragraph moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues.
The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the articles imitations of atlantic latex thesis university others because it's fun to recognize things. Film. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to hindenburg social studies the individual character of the film writers. Latex University. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men.
The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on film high and patron saint, noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and articles, its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into patron saint of homework, the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is articles serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the patron saint of homework several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of articles action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.
Tragedy must be a unified story, about writing bibliography for a book, something important. Film. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of writing an annotated bibliography for a book life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.
And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on articles to explain what these are.
Plot: the patron of homework story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the articles personalities of the characters, as shown in letter application their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of articles words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.
Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the atlantic florida university thoughts about film articles, life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to saint study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in film a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead.
At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in saint Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on film to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from patron, mythology are traditional but not mandatory. Film. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity.
Such an essay in uk effect is film articles best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of in uk themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and articles, killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Letter Visa. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the film will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. Atlantic. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of articles these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation.
It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the of homework spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to film articles prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the university utter villain be exhibited. Articles. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an essay writing jobs event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of articles a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the atlantic florida thesis King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the articles obvious? We'll soon see.
A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from atlantic latex university, good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. Film Articles. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the a 5 essay kind of tragedy which some place first. Film Articles. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite atlantic florida latex catastrophe for the good and for the bad.
It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is articles not the writing a 5 essay true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the film stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is jobs in uk slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to film articles make you have a good scare and florida latex, a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and film articles, fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by hindenburg paper, spectacular means; but they may also result from the film articles inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and atlantic latex, indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to film articles be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. Studies Paper. This is the impression we should receive from film, hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.
The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. Writing Book. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the film King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Saint. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is film good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and social studies paper, the slave quite worthless. Film. The second thing to aim at is propriety. Essay Jobs In Uk. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to film articles despise this kind of sexism and classism.
But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Florida. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in articles Aulis, which tells the writing bibliography for a book story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of film articles Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Saint Of Homework. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and film articles, refutation; the i need a 5 essay excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of articles importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of hindenburg studies research view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX.
Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the film objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. Saint Of Homework. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of film Greek Mythology are fiction. Recommendation Letter Application. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about articles, Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are.
Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of letter visa mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to articles get back at help a 5 their father. Film. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. Atlantic Florida Latex Thesis University. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. Film Articles. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Atlantic Florida Latex Thesis University. It is so you can have a good scare and film, a good cry.
This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to saint keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the articles first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the recommendation gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to film articles write essays about writing bibliography for a, tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to film be Aristotle's.
But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the writing in uk chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to film articles be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of social studies fair hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the film murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to i need help paragraph generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the articles idea of hybris in florida latex university Aristotle's Poetics. During the film articles sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against writing in uk, an accusation of hybris.
I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is film articles Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to a 5 paragraph look instead at what the author is articles really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people.
Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. Florida Thesis University. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely.
Perhaps we can also bring back, from film articles, a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the letter visa truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is film a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.
Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of writing bibliography Cthulhu, in film which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and jobs in uk, good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters.
But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. Film Articles. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate.
He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to hindenburg social studies research paper know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.).
Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on articles Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to florida thesis point out film articles, that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. Social Studies Fair. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on articles the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of essay writing in uk 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students.
No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about film, tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. Social Studies Fair Paper. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the film protagonist is i need paragraph actually destroyed by film, his or her virtues. In puzzling over social studies fair research paper this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Articles. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is bibliography for a book a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students.
The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the film articles King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is i need help a 5 essay bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the articles truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. Writing. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the film articles far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines.
You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I Need Essay. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck.
Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in articles a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Hindenburg Fair Paper. Everybody will make fun of film articles you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to bibliography book be a challenge to film his dignity, his image of his rightful status.
Only the passive, only recommendation for us, those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of film articles us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is florida latex university classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Articles. Release date Sept. 2004.
Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from atlantic florida thesis university, there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the film articles commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. Saint Of Homework. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at articles your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the patron saint of homework grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of film articles abusive relationships by any means.
The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and social fair, isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Articles. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and saint, the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.
Visitors send me this question from time to film time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. Writing Jobs In Uk. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for film articles the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for recommendation letter for us visa application lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the film articles word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and atlantic florida latex thesis university, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Film. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Atlantic Florida Latex Thesis. Argue both sides.
It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the articles three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of patron saint of homework old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is film articles a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and hindenburg social research, all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and film articles, maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations.
The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is an annotated bibliography for a book sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in film trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the atlantic florida latex thesis universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is film articles much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?
Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and saint, believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to film articles be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is application over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do.
In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of film Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for letter for us a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an film example and writing jobs in uk, keep our people safe) and articles, how it caused his ruin (Religion and university, conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in articles 1998, and has proved very popular. An Annotated For A Book. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about film, this page, all claiming to i need writing a 5 come from articles, teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at atlantic florida latex university a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about articles, classical literature to jobs send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to articles explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the writing obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and articles, I'll probably be able to atlantic thesis university take care of it for you.
Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and articles, that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the an annotated for a process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from film, its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and book, special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and articles, a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy.
William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. Hindenburg Studies Research. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the articles operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for atlantic florida thesis a price in the low four figures. Articles. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.
It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the for a book sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:
Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for articles, a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Thesis University! Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out film, what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and patron saint PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. Film Articles! [See Related Story: The Dos and i need a 5 essay Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the film authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and patron of homework a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning.
Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in articles PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. Jobs! The site includes a template for film articles, a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for for a book, that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by film articles, Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to atlantic florida thesis your business in their templates. Once the film articles template is complete, you can download and hindenburg studies fair research paper print. The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and comprehensive. Articles! MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and thesis university Entrepreneurship. Film! They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document.
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Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. Patron Of Homework! When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of film, Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.
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Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays. Project 2001: Significant Works in Economic History. Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of film, Essays . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962. 456 pp. Review Essay by Albert Fishlow, International Affairs, Columbia University. Alexander Gerschenkron: A Latecomer Who Emerged Victorious. Alexander Gerschenkron and his ideas have had, like excellent wine, a remarkable maturing in recent years. Rare is the sophisticated course in political economy that does not assign his model of relative backwardness as a required reading. Rarer still is the doctoral student in economic history who remains uninfluenced by his beguiling hypotheses about the florida latex thesis university process of historical change within Europe since the Industrial Revolution.
Gerschenkron’s Background and Early Career. Fortunately, as a consequence of a wonderful biography, The Fly Swatter , by Nicholas Dawidoff, (New York: Pantheon, 2002) his grandson, we know much more about his life than we had previously. Born in Odessa in 1904, he died in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1978. His early life was eventful. He fled the film articles Bolshevik Revolution with his father in recommendation letter visa application 1920, apparently bound for Paris, but wound up in Vienna instead. The reason was his father’s immediate success in film articles finding a position running a turbine factory. There he rapidly learned German, as well as Latin, enabling him to attempt to pass the entrance examination for secondary school within seven months. Writing! His failure, only in film articles Latin and geometry, meant he was rejected. That challenge was overcome, months later when he easily gained admission.
But his performance at the gymnasium was not going well, until he encountered his future wife, Erica. An Annotated Bibliography For A! Suddenly recommitted to study, he overcame his initial lapse, and graduated with his class. Thereafter he enrolled in the University of film articles, Vienna’s school of Nationalokonomie in 1924. His early professional career is not recorded in autobiography as was his first 20 years. Indeed, as Dawidoff summarizes it, “he didn’t much talk about the period from i need writing essay, 1924 to 1938 because that was for film him a period of growing frustration and disappointment that culminated in catastrophe.” The University experience was the first of patron saint of homework, these disappointments. Whatever the strength in economics had been with Bohm-Bawerk, Menger and others who had pioneered in the Austrian school, it was not there in film articles the 1920s. Gerschenkron graduated in bibliography for a book 1928, his thesis focusing on Austria’s happy future as a Marxist democracy. He married, had a child and took a position representing a Belgian motorcycle firm in Vienna. That was successful, but inadequate.
Three years later, he committed himself to articles politics and the Social Democrats. Recommendation Letter! That ended in 1934 with the film virtual civil war that terminated the party’s existence, and began the an annotated process of decline into Anschluss . Gerschenkron’s parents left for England at articles, that time. Four years later, he and his family would exit and join them, and hardly in easy circumstances. But the important novelty, and a decisive point in writing for a his career, was the articles invitation from Charles Gulick, a Berkeley professor whom he had earlier helped in his research in i need help Austria, to come to the United States. His acceptance marked the articles real beginning of his academic career that subsequently was to flourish over the rest of his life.
But it began equivocally. The finished Gulick book, Austria from thesis, Habsburg to film Hitler , a two-volume work, published in 1948 (Berkeley: University of California Press), was brilliant. There is good reason to credit Gerschenkron’s twelve months of continuous research and florida latex thesis, writing for that outcome. At least Berkeley provided a place for him to return, as he did in September 1939. There he was to stay for only five years before moving on articles, to the Federal Reserve Board. In that interval, beyond continuing his efforts with Gulick, he also assisted Howard Ellis and Jack Condliffe. Essay Jobs! And he wrote, in long nights of private work, what proved to be his single piece of greatest length, Bread and Democracy in Germany , published in 1943 (Berkeley: University of California Press). That book attacked the Junkers for their exploitation of the rest of the German population, and earned him promotion to the rank of Instructor with the opportunity to articles teach courses. It did not earn him any greater special recognition at Berkeley — any more than Albert Hirschman’s simultaneous efforts there did — and he moved on to Washington in studies fair research late 1944. At the Federal Reserve, he established himself as an expert on the Soviet economy.
This was a period when relationships with the Soviet Union became central to the United States, and when there were few others with his knowledge, interest and immense capacity to immerse himself in any and all information. He did well, advancing to head of the International Section, until the decisive moment came in 1948: Harvard offered him a position as a tenured professor, the successor to Abbot Payson Usher. He accepted, and his university career really began. There were four parts of that career that are relevant. It all began, appropriately enough, with the Soviet Union. At Harvard, Gerschenkron established himself at the new Russian Research Center. In a notable Rand study in 1951, A Dollar Index of Soviet Machinery Output, 1927-28 to 1937 , he showed that the remarkably high rates of growth of Soviet industrial production owed itself to the index number bias: a Laspeyres index calculated on the basis of 1926-27 weights significantly overstated real expansion. Rapid Soviet growth was not constructed on the basis of false statistics, but rather, inappropriate technique. The “Gerschenkron effect,” the difference between calculated Paasche and Laspeyres volume indexes, commemorates his contribution.
Important as the work was at the time, deflating vastly superior Soviet growth, it was not to be the basis of film articles, his subsequent fame. Gerschenkron’s Economic History: Understanding Economic Backwardness. His present reputation comes instead from his dedication to writing an annotated for a book European economic history. Film Articles! He flourished as the doyen of economic history in writing an annotated bibliography the United States. He influenced a generation of film articles, Harvard economists through his required graduate course in economic history.
His erudition and breadth of knowledge became legendary in its time. University! Gerschenkron defined an film indelible, if unattainable, standard of patron, scholarship for film colleagues and students alike. Backwardness was at the root of his model of for a, late-comer economic development. His hypothesis first took form in a 1951 essay entitled “Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective.” From that brief 25-page contribution to a conference held at Chicago, and later published in Economic Development and Cultural Change , were to emerge the central ideas that characterized his subsequent academic career. The essay gave its name to his volume of essays published by film articles Harvard University Press in 1962. It is the research paper opening chapter of that volume, and a significant reason that it was recently selected as one of the articles most influential works of economic history ever published. The central notion is the essay writing jobs in uk positive role of relative economic backwardness in inducing systematic substitution for supposed prerequisites for industrial growth. State intervention could, and film, did, compensate for the inadequate supplies of capital, skilled labor, entrepreneurship and technological capacity encountered in follower countries seeking to modernize. Writing In Uk! England, the locus of the Industrial Revolution, could advance with free market guidance along the articles lines of Adam Smith. France, beginning later, would need greater intervention to compensate for its limitations. In Germany, the key innovation would be the formation of large banks to provide access to needed capital for jobs industrialization, even as greater Russian backwardness required a larger and more direct state compensatory role.
Gerschenkron’s analysis is conspicuously anti-Marxian. Articles! It rejected the English Industrial Revolution as the studies normal pattern of industrial development and deprived the articles original accumulation of capital of its central force in determining subsequent expansion. It is likewise anti-Rostovian. There were no equivalent stages of economic growth in all participants. Elements of florida latex thesis, modernity and film articles, backwardness could survive side by side, and did, in a systematic fashion. Apparently disadvantageous initial conditions of access to writing capital could be overcome through new institutional arrangements. Success was indicated by proportionally more rapid growth in later developers, signaled by a decisive spurt in industrial expansion. This model underlay Gerschenkron’s extraordinary research into the specific developmental experiences of articles, Russia, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Bulgaria. Those specific cases, in turn, bolstered his advocacy of a comparative, all-encompassing European structure. “In this fashion,” as he wrote in 1962, “the industrial history of Europe is conceived as a unified, and yet graduated pattern.” Over time, and as he read prodigiously and modestly altered the theoretical foundation, the structure of his approach became ever more specific. I summarize it here in four hypotheses: (1) Relative backwardness creates a tension between the writing jobs in uk promise of economic development, as achieved elsewhere, and the continuity of articles, stagnation.
Such a tension takes political form and motivates institutional innovation, whose product becomes appropriate substitution for writing jobs in uk the absent preconditions for growth. (2) The greater the degree of backwardness, the more intervention is required in the market economy to channel capital and entrepreneurial leadership to nascent industries. Also, the more coercive and comprehensive were the measures required to reduce domestic consumption and film articles, allow national saving. (3) The more backward the economy, the more likely were a series of additional characteristics: an emphasis upon studies, domestic production of producers’ goods rather than consumers’ goods; the articles use of capital intensive rather than labor intensive methods of production; emergence of larger scale production units at the level both of the firm as well as the individual plant; and dependence upon borrowed, advanced technology rather than use of indigenous techniques. (4) The more backward the country, the less likely was the agricultural sector to for us visa application provide a growing market to industry, and the more dependent was industry upon growing productivity and inter-industrial sales, for its expansion. Such unbalanced growth was frequently made feasible through state participation. The considerable appeal of the Gerschenkron model derives not only from its logical and consistent ordering of the nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century European experience. That accounted for its earlier attention, where the conditional nature of its predictions contrasted strongly with its Marxist and Rostovian alternatives. What has given it greater recent notice has been its broad scale generalization to film the experience of the many late late-comers of the hindenburg social studies fair research paper present Third World. His formulation dominates the stages of growth approach because of its emphasis upon differential development in response to different initial conditions.
There is thus the irony of Walt Rostow’s demise at the hands of Gerschenkron – does anyone now assign The Stages of Economic Growth ? — when Rostow had been the first choice of Harvard to succeed Usher in 1948. In Gerschenkron’s own hands, his propositions afforded an opportunity to blend ideology, institutions and the historical experience of industrialization, especially in the case of his native Russia, in a dazzling fashion. For others, his approach has often proved a useful starting point for the historical discussion of other parts of the world, such as Henry Rosovsky did with Japan, and others, elsewhere. Always, application of the backwardness approach requires close attention to detail, as well as a quantitative emphasis. Responses to Gerschenkron’s Thesis. The model is, of course, not without its limitations and its critics. History, even of Europe alone, does not in film articles every detail bear easily the weight of latex university, such a grand design. In other parts of the world, and in a later time period, larger amendments are frequently required, and sometimes forgotten by current advocates.
And somewhat surprisingly, in view of Gerschenkron’s own path-breaking essay in political economy, Bread and Democracy in Germany , there is too little special attention to the domestic classes and interests seeking to film control the interventionist state. Of Homework! Backwardness can too easily become an alternative, technologically rooted explanation that distracts attention from the state and the politics surrounding it, rather than focusing upon articles, its opportunities and constraints. Ultimately, as well, there are the help writing many developmental failures — rather than only the successes — that now loom larger and attract attention. Film Articles! While he did explicitly treat Austria as a failed case, it was not a central part of his theoretical structure. Moreover, important current issues like globalization, the central role of international trade, and education are less significant through much of the nineteenth century in Europe. Still, the concept of relative backwardness, and Gerschenkron’s always insightful and rich elaborations in so many national contexts, represent a brilliant and original approach to economic history that has been perhaps unequalled in the twentieth century. And more recently, with the rise of political economy as a field, his work is widely assigned as required reading. A quick measure of his current influence is the letter for us almost 2000 Google references that turn up with the articles entry of his name. Gerschenkron’s Enduring Influence.
His third great contribution came through his students. Dawidoff’s The Fly Swatter , provides a whole chapter, and more, focused on his role. Writing A 5 Paragraph Essay! First, in the 1950s came the film articles students who worked upon the Soviet Union. Then, as his interests concentrated upon economic history, came his direction of the Ford Foundation supported Economic History Workshop at Harvard in the late 1950’s and 1960s. His seminar then, and the availability of i need writing a 5 paragraph essay, fellowship support, attracted several Harvard students, and even some from neighboring MIT, to work in articles the field. Always, too, there were an impressive group of visitors to Cambridge who were invited to speak to the seminar, but never had permanence in its regular activities. His recruitment techniques were subtle but effective. Recommendation Visa Application! Economics 233, the course in economic history required of all graduate students, assigned a paper as well as a final examination. That provided a chance for him to assess each student early on through a brief visit to his office.
Entry therein was a special occasion: filled as it was with books, journals, documents, maps, etc., it embodied scholarship with a capital S. Few who were recruited could desist, regardless of film, initial inclinations that were not directed to economic history. The course was just the introduction. For those who went on in the field more seriously, the regular evening seminar became the focus. There ideas for dissertations were discussed and quantitative techniques evaluated. It was just as the computer was evolving and essay writing jobs, econometrics was undergoing rapid advance.
Gerschenkron himself frequently knew little of the economic theory or statistical techniques proposed. He usually limited himself to a final evaluative comment, and one that either justified further research or implicitly suggested that another topic might be a better eventual choice. That judgment was informed by the previous discussion as well as his sense of the student’s intellectual capacity. Gerschenkron had extremely good judgment or very good luck, or perhaps a combination of both. For the small crop of students who wrote with him over more than a decade went on film, to leadership as the field of economic history was just changing back from an historical emphasis to an economic one. Cliometrics was the fair paper new terminology. Leading universities absorbed his students, who almost always have had productive subsequent careers. Additionally, one can record that a goodly number of them have also attained presidency of the Economic History Association. It was not his direct dissertation supervision that was responsible.
He provided no topic, no suggestion of sources, no regular guidance, no timetable for conclusion. Most of the students chose subject matter far from continental Europe. What these persons gained was proximity to a stellar intellect, and film, close association with each other as they pursued their research. They also obtained a father figure whom they desperately sought to imitate in recommendation application their own scholarship and subsequent teaching. Film Articles! Those who survived that complex relationship almost always emerged with deep affection and fond memories, even if the process was far from linear and continuous. By the mid-1960s, ten of his students, both in Soviet economics and economic history, prepared a Festschrift in writing book his honor. The book, Industrialization in Two Systems , was organized and edited by Henry Rosovsky, and published in film 1966 (New York: Wiley). Many of the essays are still worth reading. In Uk! But the dedication, from the articles Pirke Avot , states their strong feelings perhaps best of help paragraph, all: “The day is articles short, and the work is great, and the laborers are sluggish, and the reward is much, and the Master is urgent.”
A fourth and last relevant observation relates to his general intellect. He was an extraordinary scholar (and person), as his biography fully details. He was an recommendation for us application exceptional reader, of good books and bad. In his own writings, his references were varied, and consciously intended to impress: “There was almost always a little Latin, unless there was a little Greek or a little German or a little Russian or a little French or a little Italian; …” Nor did he exclusively write on articles, economic history. There were his book reviews and other essays, including the one joint work — with his wife — on the adequacy of the diverse translations of Hamlet’s quatrain to Ophelia in sixteen different languages. There were his regular lunchtime performances at the Faculty Club and Eliot House and essay writing in uk, his interactions with other Harvard scholars. His talents were notable and appreciated: what other economist would have been offered chairs in Italian literature and Slavic studies?
Not surprisingly, upon reaching the film mandatory retirement age of 65 in 1969, he was offered a further five years. Latex Thesis University! But those years were not a happy terminus to his long stay at articles, Harvard. The war in Vietnam, and the student reaction, imposed a large cost, as it did to many others who had fled Europe in the 1930s. Long-standing friendships were broken, as with John Kenneth Galbraith. The end of the recommendation letter visa application economic history requirement in 1973 was another major disappointment. Perhaps the articles greatest one, however, was his inability to publish the atlantic florida great work, the big book that would summarize his brilliant insights into the process of European industrial change, the book that could and would influence political scientists and economists for film generations to come. I Need Help Paragraph! Despite this lapse, Gerschenkron’s influence has subsequently blossomed. The collection of essays under review, which opens with the backwardness thesis and closes with appendices on industrial development in articles Italy and Bulgaria (with reflections on Soviet literature along the way) — has achieved a hallowed acceptance. Recent Developments and bibliography, Gerschenkron’s Ideas.
The current surge of interest in film political economy has brought a second wave of increasing interest in Gerschenkron’s insights. As the atlantic florida latex thesis university contemporary world continues to confront the film problem of inadequate development, particularly over the last twenty years in Latin America and Africa, that special magic of nineteenth century backwardness stimulates greater appeal, and jobs in uk, greater hope. So does the case of success in articles Asia. The rapid pace of development in East Asia, for example, has inspired a whole set of major works over recommendation visa, the last fifteen years, seeking to ascertain how a region, apparently condemned to continuing stagnation by religion, language and tradition, could spurt ahead in the 1970s and subsequent periods. Even the recent pause, requiring massive assistance from the IMF and extensive domestic restructuring, has come off with barely a temporary decline. After all the discussion of major changes supposedly required in the system of international financial flows in the past few years, little has, in fact, happened. The market has continued to distribute something like $1 trillion, in both capital flows as well as foreign investment, throughout the world. Articles! Market criteria have dominated, as even a casual look at real interest rates within developing countries suggests. This has not much altered the pattern of development. The countries of Asia have managed to regain their position of primacy in global growth rates.
With AIDS spreading rapidly throughout Africa, with malaria and other diseases recurring, with environmental degradation threatening, with a demographic transition that will begin to exert the pressure of an aging population, there is no lack of additional new problems that are pressing. On the other side is the reality of declining international assistance from the essay writing already developed North. Failure of economic development to become a global process, as it appeared to do in the 1960s, and for film articles broad convergence in per capita income levels to occur, now constitutes a major intellectual and practical challenge. Should one opt against the pressures of increasing globalization, and return to the industrial protection and import substitution of the past? Should one seek to enhance the role of writing jobs in uk, central direction and decision at the expense of film, decentralization and private determination? Should one attack the latex thesis inequality of income and poverty by imposing greater burdens upon the domestic rich and foreign investors? Should one engage in significant land reform? Should one renationalize after the extraordinary privatization that has occurred over articles, the last decade or so? These new issues are not ones that Gerschenkron explicitly raised. But they are implicit in his efforts to pose the advantages of backwardness. What was an advantage in one historical setting can readily become a disadvantage in another.
But the florida thesis very effort to construct an explicit, and testable, model is what differentiates him from his contemporaries. Shura, as he was better known by those very close to him, is guaranteed a place in the pantheon of economic history. Albert Fishlow is Professor of International Affairs and Director, Institute of Latin American Studies at film articles, Columbia University. Atlantic! He has served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs; Dean of film articles, International and Area Studies at UC-Berkeley; Paul A. Volcker Senior Fellow for International Economics at recommendation for us visa, the Council of film articles, Foreign Affairs; and coeditor of Journal of Development Economics , among numerous other positions.
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Essay on articles, Genetics: The Heredity Carrier of Living Cell. Essay on Genetics: The Heredity Carrier of Living Cell! One of the most remarkable aspects of an annotated bibliography life is its capacity not only continuously to film articles, seek states of dynamic equilibrium in relation to environment but also to produce remarkably faithful copies of itself for countless generations. Many plants and animals exist today in a form virtually identical to that of their ancestors thousands of years ago. Many present-day species of life appear to resemble closely, if not to patron saint of homework, duplicate, ancestors of several thousand years ago. Cro-Magnon man, 25,000 years ago, was physically little different from modern man.
Nuclei of living cells contain tiny rod like structures in pairs, the film articles chromosomes (so named because of their capacity to absorb certain dyes). The two sets appear upon essay, examination to be identical or nearly so. Although the chromosomes of a cell may vary markedly in size and shape, each chromosome will have a “mate” of film articles approximately the essay same size and shape. Where reproduction is sexual, one set represents the inheritance from the father; the other set the inheritance from the film articles mother. The number of chromosomes in a living cell varies from one species of animal or plant to another.
In human beings there are twenty-three pairs. Chromosomes carry what Schrodinger has called a “code script.” This code script directs the thesis development of the organism from the time the articles egg is recommendation for us application fertilized to the adult state and in major ways governs the biological functioning of the film articles organism throughout life. To use a vastly oversimplified and much too mechanical analogy, we might say that the chromosomal carriers of heredity function like the punched tapes or cards which are fed into electronic computing machines. They cause a machine to atlantic florida thesis, run through a series of predictable steps. This analogy would be more complete if one of the processes induced in the computer were the articles duplication of the respective machine, complete with an i need writing a 5 essay, identical set of punched tapes or cards. The “procreated” duplicator then would engage in film articles the same processes, self-duplication and all—and this would continue indefinitely.
For the analogy to florida thesis, be perfect, the reproduction of film a computer would require the functions of two parent computers, “male” and “female,” each of which would contribute to the offspring a set of recommendation application its own punched tapes or cards which would work jointly in directing the offspring’s functioning. Until the past decade or so, biologists thought that a specific characteristic of an organism is governed by a specific region of a chromosome or matched pair of chromosomes. This region was referred to as a gene. Prior to 1953, biologists conceived a gene to be a highly complex protein molecule. However, gene theory has in late years undergone a revolution. First, it was discovered that the chemical carrier of hereditary traits is not protein but a chemical, deoxyribonucleic acid—DNA for short—which is centered in the nuclei of articles cells.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)—a near replica of DNA—moves out of cell nuclei into the cells’ cytoplasm or outer layers. Thus, RNA actually transmits the coded hereditary information of DNA to other tissues. Chromosomes consist mainly of saint molecules of DNA. DNA, through the use of its “partner chemical,” RNA, has the unique capacity of reproducing itself identically whenever its environment contains the necessary raw materials. However, duplication of the chromosomal genes is by no means the sole function of DNA. Through the film pioneering work of an annotated Andre Lwoff, Jacques Monod, and Francois Jacob of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, it appears established that, when a foreign substance is introduced into a cell, it triggers the cell’s DNA to film, produce precisely to atlantic thesis university, enzyme needed to convert the substance to a chemical form which cells can use to develop and multiply. Thus, in a sense, the basic function of genes can be turned on film articles, or off—they can perform tasks other than merely transmitting hereditary characteristics.
Research continues and, as of this writing, it seems apparent that we may as yet know little about the for us functions of DNA. It is evident, however, that it serves as a kind of articles “brain within the writing a 5 paragraph essay cell” (to use a crude analogy), the full implications of which forces us to revise fundamentally our concept of the cell and perhaps the nature of life itself. A second major discovery has been that DNA molecules in a chromosome do not usually work independently of one another. They tend to film, work in teams, in a 5 paragraph essay the sense that the functioning of film articles one affects the functioning of others. One authority conceives a chromosome as a “hierarchy of fields,” rather than an assemblage of particles. The gene concept is still useful but it now seems best to think of a gene as a function of a region of a chromosome rather than as a specific particle. As we have seen, chromosomes occur in body cells in matched pairs.
Apparently, their functions—genes—also occur in matched pairs, one of each pair being associated with one chromosome, its mate with the matched chromosome. When we say that a hereditary characteristic, like skin colour, is governed by a gene group, we really mean a pair of gene groups. However, it is common for one member of a gene pair or gene group pair to be recessive; that is, when paired with a dominant gene or gene group it fails to make its characteristics evident in the resulting body structure. Thus, when a gene for saint of homework brown eyes is paired with a gene for blue eyes, the gene for brown eyes prevails. Film Articles. For a person to have blue eyes he must carry two recessive genes for writing an annotated blue. Eye colour is articles one of a few characteristics in human beings apparently governed by a single gene pair. Help Writing. Other such characteristics include blood type, albinism, and “taste blindness “for certain chemicals.
In these cases, if we know the genetic history of a man and woman for a few generations past, we can predict with considerable accuracy the proportion of their children likely to exhibit a given trait. This type of inheritance follows Mendelian principles, i.e., the principles of heredity formulated by Gregor, Mendel (1822-1884). Characteristics so inherited are “clear cut” in the sense that they appear either in full or not at film all. But, much more common among human beings are inherited characteristics which are the result of blending, i.e., the writing an annotated bibliography interplay of gene teams. These characteristics do not follow the film articles all or none principle; they appear as a point on a continuum. Good examples among humans are stature, skin colour, and predisposition to certain diseases. It is very hard to predict the outcome of blending; for example, even if we knew the skin colours of a baby’s ancestors, for several generations, it would still not be safe to predict the an annotated bibliography for a baby’s colour before his birth. Of course, because of the ways in which environmental factors seemingly can influence physical traits, one is never safe in articles predicting that any particular kind of atlantic hereditary trait will appear in an adult offspring. This phenomenon is sufficiently important to be explored in more detail. The pattern of genes of an film, organism is referred to as the organism’s genotype, its internal chromosomal structure.
The genotype governs what an organism can become in writing an annotated for a a given environment and also determines the hereditary characteristics which an organism can transmit to its offspring (though, if reproduction is heterosexual, the articles genotype of the offspring is of course a product of the genotype of a 5 both father and mother). The external appearance of an articles, organism is called its phenotype. The phenotype seems always to be a product of its genotypic and i need environmental influences. Phenotypes may vary considerably even when genotypes remain the same. For example, when persons of Asiatic extraction move to the United States, their children (if reared in articles this country) tend to be larger than the parents and recommendation letter application their grandchildren larger still. This signifies a change in phenotype but not necessarily a change in genotype. Film Articles. Better nourishment may increase the size of future generations without in the least changing their hereditary potential. Essay Writing Jobs. Conversely, two persons might have the same phenotype for a given trait but differ in genotype.
Modern geneticists are inclined to film, give less weight than did their forebears to the influence of letter for us visa application genotype. Certainly, genetic inheritance counts for a good deal in determining the kind of adult a person will become, but the film fact is, we do not know the exact role genotype plays in determining phenotype. Scientists used to debate what they called the nature-nurture issue. The issue could be phrased thus: Which characteristics of an help a 5 essay, organism are products of physical inheritance and which are products of environmental influence? But, modern scientists have virtually abandoned debate on this issue; many say that, since we have no adequate means of film ascertaining the facts, continuing such a debate is writing in uk futile. The best studies of the effect of genetic inheritance are those on identical twins. Film Articles. Since identical twins result from splitting of a single fertilized egg, presumably they have identical genes. What is determined by patron of homework heredity should therefore appear in exactly the same form in the two twins—subject, of course, to articles, such environmental modification as may have occurred. It is true that identical twins usually look very much alike, sometimes to social research, the point where their parents can scarcely tell them apart.
However, this fact does not entail their necessarily being alike in film articles other respects. According to one study, the IQ difference of identical twins that have been reared together is florida university 3.1 points; that of fraternal twins reared together, 8.5 points. However, authorities point out that the identical twin studies do not mean much. Most of the twin studies involve twins reared together, and identical twins share a more similar environment than do non-twin siblings. Film. They identify closely with each other and come to see the world around them in almost the same terms. Furthermore, they normally share the same diet and medical care.
The most valid type of study with respect to the nature-nurture controversy is that of identical twins who were separated in infancy and an annotated bibliography for a reared out of contact with each other and in dissimilar environments. Under these conditions, twins tend to be less alike; for example, the film average difference in IQ scores in doubles that of identical! Wins reared together. Writing A 5 Paragraph. But an inadequate number of film cases of thesis university identical twins reared apart in dissimilar environments have so far been studied to tell us much that is conclusive. We remain on safer ground when we refuse to say that some traits are hereditary and others are acquired. It seems likely that all physical traits represent a blend of both influences. This question has an easy answer: No evidence! It is obvious that certain personality traits appear regularly in one family line and film not in another. A considerable proportion of the members of a family may be unusually energetic or unusually lazy, unusually excitable or unusually phlegmatic, unusually quick-tempered or unusually slow to i need writing a 5 paragraph essay, anger, unusually amorous or unusually cold. However, the frequent appearance of a given personality trait in a given family line is film articles readily explainable as a result of social or cultural inheritance. John Jr. may be quick-tempered because he has observed that in many situations John Sr.’s equally quick temper gets desired results.
When this happens, the personality trait is learned and writing an annotated bibliography for a not inherited genetically. So far as we know, all personality traits are learned. However, we have no conclusive evidence that this is film articles true; if we ever learn how to conduct meaningful studies in this area, we may find that some personality traits have a genetic basis. Some persons are what we call “high strung”; they are unusually sensitive and easily upset. This particular personality type may well prove to be in part a product of a particular gene pattern. But we do not know this is the case. When someone says that Mary, who has been caught shoplifting, “comes by it honestly,” he usually means that she inherited a tendency which has appeared in the family before—perhaps Mary’s Aunt Maude was also a shoplifter. To impute such behaviour to recommendation for us, inheritance is to film articles, go far beyond the evidence. The wisest stand for social research paper a teacher to take is that physical in heritance in itself is rarely of any crucial importance.
That is, as teachers we can get few clues as to how to handle a child or youth from knowledge of his genetic make-up, even if we have such knowledge. Film Articles. What is of vital importance is a child’s capacity to modify himself through interaction with an environment. All but the hopelessly defective have this capacity. Modern genetics helps us understand better what a race is and how races differ. Two characteristics of genes are of prime significance in this connection. One characteristic is that the atlantic florida thesis university function of a particular DNA molecule, or of a cooperating group of such molecules (gene team), remains stable for an indefinite length of time. Mutations, to be discussed in the next section, do occur; but, barring mutations, gene functions do not change. Film Articles. Thus, a gene which produces brown eyes will continue to do so indefinitely. Furthermore, insofar as we know, the molecular structure of such a gene is the same whether a person is a Negro, a Swede, or a Polynesian.
A second characteristic of genes is that they seem able to vary independently. At first thought, this statement may seem to contradict the earlier assertion that most physical traits are products of gene teams and that a chromosome may be better understood as a “field of forces’ with highly complex lilies of interaction. However, if we regard independent gene variation as relative—that is, not absolutely independent, but relatively so—there is no contradiction. As a result of this second feature of i need help paragraph essay genes, genes which produce tall stature may occur in persons who carry genes for black or white skin, narrow or broad nose, blond or dark hair, blue or brown eyes. Thus, any hereditary trait may appear in film conjunction with any other trait. These two genetic principles give meaning to the following definition of race: “Races are populations which differ in the relative commonness of i need writing paragraph essay some of their genes.” Thus, in a particular race a given trait, such as tallness, may occur more often than in another race. A particular shade of film articles skin may be more common in one race than in latex another. This does not mean that genes capable of producing traits quite different from the usual ones are absent from a race; it means rather that there are “majority traits” which are sufficiently common to make most members of a race look different from film articles most members of another race. This definition is not free of difficulty, in that the problem remains of deciding which traits to use in defining a particular race. If we use only one characteristic, such as skin colour, and assume that everyone with a black skin belongs to a “black race,” we must include peoples who differ markedly from one another in other characteristics (e.g., Asian Indians, Melanesians, and Africans).
It is patron of homework necessary, therefore, to use several traits which are easily measured and which tend to occur in combination. Film Articles. Anthropologists have used skin colour, hair colour and texture, eye colour, head shape, and stature. Classificatory schemes used at present usually propose three primary races, or racial stock: Caucasoid, Negroid, and saint of homework Mongoloid. Within this framework several hundred distinct races may be identified, e.g., Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, Armenoid, Hindi, and so on. Articles. Since the base now commonly used for atlantic latex classifying people racially are arbitrary, and since racial mixing apparently has occurred since the first development of distinctive races, we can only conclude that the concept of race is not very meaningful. In Dunn and Dobzhansky’s words. Film. “When we say that two populations are racially different we are not saying very much.” There may be vast differences culturally between the races, but this is a matter of learning and recommendation for us visa application not a product of articles biological difference. Of Homework. No one has yet been able to adduce scientifically defensible evidence that one race is film articles superior to another in social research paper any way which we consider important.
Some races tend to be physically more powerful than others, some can withstand cold better than others, some can withstand heat better than others—but these are relatively minor matters. There is no evidence that any race has a superior capacity for film articles intelligent behaviour or a monopoly on morality. Although cultural differences may in some places make racial intermarriage unwise, there is no known biological harm which can result from atlantic florida latex racial mixture. On the contrary, experience with hybridization throughout the plant and animal kingdom suggests that a hybrid strain may be biologically better, i.e., stronger and more vigorous, than the articles parent varieties. Many social scientists feel that ultimately widespread racial intermarriage not only will occur but will be the only final solution to the problem of racial prejudice.
The main racial lesson which modern genetics has for prospective teachers is writing an annotated for a that there are no known biological limits which prevent one race from learning what other races have learned. However, cultural limitations may be quite serious and may require generations to overcome. Teachers should recognize that, because of cultural background, some races typically outperform others in an average American classroom. For example, the authors live in a community with a fairly large Chinese-American population, and Chinese children and youth are usually “high performers” in academic subjects. A cultural tradition of film prizing scholarship, which extends backward thousands of years, undoubtedly explains the Chinese performance. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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