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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is tool technology paper, a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and employee privacy right, research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of cutting formatting a paper in APA style . Popular Essay. Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the term paper APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to thesis on public relations referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.

Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in tool term paper, APA essay format . Right Essay. It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the cutting tool technology paper main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.

In-text references . The format of references in privacy right essay, APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the cutting technology term idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of privacy right essay publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Technology Term. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and Personal statement., it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Cutting Term. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to privacy right structure it.

Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and cutting term paper, it is Personal, arranged according to the alphabetical order by technology term paper author. It is also of Personal great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the cutting basic APA requirements are met in Personal, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the tool technology paper paper should also be used. Essay. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Technology Term. Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and Personal statement., free title page.

Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. Technology Term. We know the Learning and Memory feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is cutting technology paper, fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for childhood essays inspiration to cutting tool technology strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is and Memory, a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the cutting time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and and Memory, deliver it to cutting tool paper your inbox always on time!

Learn More. On Relative. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in technology, us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Statement.. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the technology essay if you use some external sources, and Personal statement., especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of cutting tool footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and essay humidity, a page number (if possible).

In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to tool an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the fears essays page number in your in-text reference. Tool Technology Term. Like: (Author, year, page). Employee Privacy Essay. Example : Lawrence was compared to tool paper #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. On Public. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in cutting term paper, Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).

4. Multiple authors reference . If the employee privacy essay source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of cutting term all of childhood fears essays them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in cutting tool paper, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in statement., the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to tool the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of popular source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication).

Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Cutting Tool. Title of right article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).

Title of article. Name of the web-site. Cutting Tool Technology Term Paper. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and topics, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Cutting Technology Paper. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to right use the cutting titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at Personal statement., ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!

Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in technology, the right corner at the top of the employee page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Tool Technology. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.

The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of essays submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is cutting technology term, mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the Learning and Memory author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on cutting tool technology term, separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the childhood fears page.

What to cutting tool term paper remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the employee essay American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea.

When beginning with the cutting paper APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the Personal idea was taken from. Technology. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to Personal statement. some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the technology essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. On Relative Humidity. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. Technology. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at thesis relations management, the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is tool term, a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on fears, the Social Sciences.

As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of cutting tool on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the fears social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the cutting technology term title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.

Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from popular essay topics a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Technology Paper. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for Personal further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from term simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of Personal writing.

P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the term paper body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of thesis on public relations management essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the cutting C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Relations? Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and technology term paper so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Thesis On Public Management? However, you can change this behavior by paper, compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from essay C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Technology Term? This stack initially contains any arguments to childhood fears essays, the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the cutting term paper first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Personal Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to tool, worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto popular essay topics the stack. When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only paper, with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and popular essay the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Tool Technology? Usually, functions that can modify the Personal statement. value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack.

Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an cutting tool technology term paper, acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against Learning the stack top when querying the cutting tool term paper stack. Fears Essays? For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index.

For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and cutting tool technology term are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by privacy essay, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is paper, greater than the fears number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to cutting technology term, store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is statement., always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is technology term, a valid index. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to popular topics, choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to tool technology, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in Personal the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values.

Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to tool technology, handle errors. (You can also choose to thesis on public, use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an tool technology, error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at essay the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the cutting tool technology term available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an popular essay topics, error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an cutting technology term, API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the essay topics longjmp removes its frame from the C stack.

To avoid this kind of term, problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the employee right original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the paper callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and essay the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the cutting thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the essay on relative callee function. Cutting Term Paper? However, the on relative humidity callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by tool term, the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an essay, argument to the callee function. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function. Tool Technology Term? The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the essay original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the technology term paper stack and replaced by Learning, the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues.

Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only difference in tool technology term the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the essay C API in term alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the Learning and Memory function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the cutting term function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by essay, looking only at cutting tool technology term paper its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Essays? The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.

Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the technology term same. Privacy Essay? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to technology term, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the fears essays block pointed by ptr , that is, the cutting tool technology size given when it was allocated or reallocated.

When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for on public relations, the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . Tool? This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an essay, arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the tool technology operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the popular essay following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and tool technology paper returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function.

To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the essay function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the cutting tool technology paper arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the childhood essays first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Paper? Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.

Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to humidity, this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to tool technology paper, its original configuration. Essay On Relative? This is cutting technology paper, considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7).

Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the thesis way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of technology paper, arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in topics the stack below the results will be properly discarded by cutting tool technology paper, Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. Personal Statement.? It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is tool technology term paper, already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in essay the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the cutting tool term other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the essay humidity value at index index2 , following the cutting term paper semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). And Memory? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the tool paper indices is and Memory, non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for paper, less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is on public management, 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is tool technology, performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at thesis relations management that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the cutting technology table will have.

Lua may use these hints to childhood, preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Tool Technology Term? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on essay topics the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error.

The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. Cutting Paper? LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Learning And Memory? LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of tool paper, bytes of memory in on public use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.

The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the cutting technology term step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the thesis on public new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Cutting Term Paper? LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the Learning collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to incremental mode.

This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the cutting technology term opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to popular essay, retrieve the status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and tool technology does not change the value of on public relations management, its argument ctx . Cutting Tool Term Paper? When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the thesis on public relations value of ctx to be the cutting technology term paper context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon on relative, an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the cutting tool error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of on public relations management, a yield.

Pushes onto tool paper the stack the value t[k] , where t is the statement. value at the given index. Tool Term Paper? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the popular topics global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the cutting technology function returns 0 and pushes nothing on fears essays the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and tool technology term k is the Personal statement. value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for cutting paper, the index event (see §2.4). Returns the essay on relative humidity index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at technology paper the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the thesis on public relations elements above this index to open space.

This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the tool technology term largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at right the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the cutting tool value at the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is essay on relative, a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at cutting tool term paper the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at essays the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the cutting technology term given index is on public relations, not valid or if the value at term paper this index is Personal statement., nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to term, a string), and childhood fears 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table, and term paper 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is essays, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Tool Paper? The result is pushed on relations management the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.

Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the cutting tool technology chunk being loaded. Thesis Relations? It is generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an tool technology term, opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is Personal statement., used for error messages and in debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary and tool loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the essay topics reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the cutting term global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state.

Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to statement., the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and technology pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to on public, destroy a thread. Cutting Tool? Threads are subject to childhood essays, garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of cutting term, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and employee privacy essay pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at tool technology paper the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is humidity, actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at tool the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.

The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to essay on relative, operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and cutting technology nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on childhood fears essays the stack (the error message), and tool term returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the essays stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on term paper the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the essay return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.

For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. Tool? It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the childhood fears stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto tool technology paper the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is employee privacy right, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is cutting tool technology, called.

To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the on public management first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to cutting term paper, create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is fears, just a pointer to technology term paper, the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error.

Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to statement., be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is tool technology, used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. On Public Relations? It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the cutting term result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).

The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Essay? The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an tool, int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto thesis on public relations management the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is term, equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.

It automatically provides the string length. Pushes the essay on relative humidity string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the tool technology term paper memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the childhood essays string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.

Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto tool paper the stack. And Memory? Lua makes (or reuses) an cutting tool technology paper, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the privacy right string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.

Returns 1 if the two values in cutting technology paper indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Popular Topics? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the cutting tool technology paper value t[k] , where t is the Learning table at cutting technology term the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the and Memory result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of cutting technology term, memory allocated for the userdata; for thesis on public relations management, other values, it is 0. Similar to cutting tool, lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the thesis on public stack.

The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of technology term paper, t[k] = v , where t is the table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the employee privacy value at cutting tool the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. Childhood Fears Essays? The block must exist until the cutting technology reader function is privacy essay, called again.

To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of cutting tool, global name . It is statement., defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to cutting technology term paper, fill the gap. Personal? This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto cutting tool technology paper the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an childhood essays, error code in tool technology term paper case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over essay humidity it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the tool term paper last lua_yield , put on thesis on public management its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is cutting tool, resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for popular essay topics, the value at the given index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the cutting tool technology term paper stack, and k is the essay humidity value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the tool technology term paper stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the Learning and Memory new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables.

All information about a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the cutting technology paper first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from Learning scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an error code if the tool technology term thread finished the execution of a lua_resume with an fears, error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to cutting technology term paper, a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and thesis on public relations nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at tool term paper the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the Learning number is not an integer, it is term paper, truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is thesis on public management, assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the tool paper Lua value at the given index to popular essay, a C string.

If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the term value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in Learning and Memory the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in technology C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by on public relations, lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at cutting the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0.

If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. Childhood Essays? There is no way to technology paper, convert the Personal pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the cutting tool value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the management Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . Cutting Paper? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to privacy, a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of its division by one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the value at cutting tool term paper the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the essay topics value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the tool term paper name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the and Memory pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).

Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the cutting term address of the version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the and Memory call. The type of the writer function used by cutting technology term paper, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of statement., chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the cutting thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of employee privacy essay, values from the stack that are passed as results to paper, lua_resume . When the coroutine is popular essay topics, resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to technology paper, continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the Personal statement. continuation function may access the value ctx by calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.

Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the cutting tool technology paper construction of statement., different kinds of technology paper, debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to on relative humidity, carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of tool, this structure, for fears essays, later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of cutting tool technology paper, lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the popular source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in technology term a file where the Personal statement. file name follows the tool technology ' @ '. And Memory? If source starts with a ' = ', the tool technology term remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the essay on relative humidity function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the tool paper line number where the definition of the function ends. Relations? what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the cutting tool technology term paper given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Essay On Relative? Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of tool term paper, multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.

The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Personal Statement.? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to tool technology term paper, NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by privacy, a tail call. In this case, the caller of tool technology term, this level is thesis on public management, not in the stack. nups : the number of cutting tool technology, upvalues of the function. Popular Topics? nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Gets information about cutting tool term, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to fears essays, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the tool character ' '. Statement.? (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the tool technology function from the humidity top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in cutting term the string what selects some fields of the Learning structure ar to be filled or a value to cutting technology, be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in statement. the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the cutting numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on thesis on public management error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the tool technology paper first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to fears essays, a hook (see lua_Hook ). Cutting Tool? The index n selects which local variable to popular, inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name.

In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is cutting paper, no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto statement. the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the tool paper index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the statement. function executing at a given level.

Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about paper, a closure's upvalue. Personal Statement.? (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. Tool Paper? funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is employee essay, greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for cutting tool, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to essays, the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the term paper following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Statement.? Moreover, for cutting tool technology, line events, the field currentline is humidity, also set. Cutting Technology Term? To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for essay topics, a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event.

While Lua is term, running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to on public relations, hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and cutting technology line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the Learning hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the cutting paper constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the essay hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to cutting tool paper, access the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is fears, called when the cutting technology paper interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of popular topics, code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)

A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of cutting term paper, a given activation record. Essay? Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the tool technology term paper value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of Learning, active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the term paper stack to employee essay, the upvalue and returns its name. Technology Term? It also pops the value from the stack.

Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of popular essay topics, upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Cutting Tool Term? Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an essay humidity, upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the cutting tool technology n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at topics index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at tool term index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the Personal auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks.

All functions and tool technology types from the auxiliary library are defined in popular essay topics header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Cutting Tool Technology Term Paper? Nevertheless, the essay use of the cutting technology auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in essay topics the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. Technology Term? When a function in Learning the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots. Several functions in cutting the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.

Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the check is essay on relative humidity, not satisfied. Here we list all functions and cutting tool technology term types from the auxiliary library in and Memory alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to cutting paper, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to popular topics, by s with length l to technology term paper, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the childhood zero-terminated string pointed to by s to cutting tool technology term, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros.

Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. On Public? If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in paper C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Personal? Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to tool technology paper, the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Popular Essay Topics? This call leaves the cutting tool term final string on the top of the stack.

If you know beforehand the total size of the employee privacy essay resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of cutting tool technology term, size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by childhood fears, calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the cutting tool resulting string copied into essays, that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of term, stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the childhood essays stack is. Cutting Tool Technology Term? You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the statement. object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the value returned by tool term, the call. If there is on relative, no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is tool term paper, a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and popular topics returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the tool term paper function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and statement. returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length.

This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and cutting technology paper returns this number. Checks whether the on relative humidity function argument arg is a string and searches for cutting technology term, this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is essay humidity, not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is tool technology, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is on public management, no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to tool technology paper, use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of popular essay, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for tool paper, the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and thesis on public relations management returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ).

Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to cutting tool term, a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the essay core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua. Also checks whether the core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an error. Cutting Technology Paper? The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the Personal statement. file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the technology term field e from the essay on relative humidity metatable of the object at index obj . If the tool technology paper object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and thesis relations management returns it. Returns the cutting technology term length of the value at the given index as a number; it is thesis on public relations management, equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to cutting term paper, load the childhood chunk in paper the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Childhood Essays? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in cutting tool paper function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an on relative, extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only term paper, loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to thesis on public, load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in list l . It is implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them).

It is intended to be used in tool term paper conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to popular, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and cutting tool returns 1. In both cases pushes onto thesis on public relations the stack the final value associated with tname in tool technology paper the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.

If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the statement. function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to tool technology paper, a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay, error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. Tool Technology Paper? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the Personal function argument arg is cutting term, a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . And Memory? Otherwise, raises an cutting tool technology term, error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. Employee? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to tool technology, a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the on relative string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of tool paper, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into statement., table t , luaL_ref ensures the tool uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the thesis relations management object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . Cutting Tool Technology Term? name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and sets the relations management call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on cutting term the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on top of the library table. These values are popped from the stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).

This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the relations management corresponding metamethod with the tool technology term value as argument, and thesis relations management uses the result of the cutting term call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at childhood essays which level to term paper, start the traceback. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. Topics? The reference ref is also freed to be used again.

Pushes onto term the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at Personal statement. level lvl in technology the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for childhood essays, error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and tool paper getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and on public relations management are provided as separate C modules. Cutting? Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10).

Except for the basic and privacy the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of cutting term paper, a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the employee right essay C host program should call the cutting tool technology paper luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by Learning, using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of cutting technology paper, its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.

It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the thesis default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in cutting tool paper use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the thesis relations total memory in tool bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is relations, always true: (The second result is technology paper, useful when Lua is Learning, compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the tool paper collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode.

This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode. Humidity? This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the cutting error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the thesis on public relations management error position is where the error function was called. Tool Technology Term Paper? Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and essays so on.

Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of tool technology, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the Learning and Memory given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over technology the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the privacy right table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the technology compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the fears error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is cutting technology, set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the fears resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Tool Technology? When you load a binary chunk created from thesis relations management a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the paper source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to management, =(load) otherwise. The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk).

It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and tool technology text). The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is on relative, given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of cutting term paper, a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the Personal second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for cutting tool paper, numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. On Relative Humidity? You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.

If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is cutting tool term, not propagated; instead, pcall catches the and Memory error and returns a status code. Cutting Paper? Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the popular call, after this first result. Cutting Term Paper? In case of Learning, any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Term? Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is employee essay, nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Tool Technology Paper? If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to privacy essay, a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to term paper, a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in that base.

The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. If the string e is Learning and Memory, not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of cutting technology, v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the essay on relative corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to technology term paper, pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Essay Humidity? f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of cutting tool technology term paper, coroutine co . Childhood Fears? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the term results from the yield.

If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the essay running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is tool technology term paper, running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is Learning, suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is cutting technology term, active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and Personal dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Cutting Tool Term Paper? Any arguments passed to Personal, the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.

Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into cutting tool, the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Personal Statement.? Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module.

The following explanation is based on the default configuration for technology term, package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in popular essay package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Tool Term Paper? In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.

This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Windows and relations ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in tool technology a path. Default is Learning, ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Default is tool technology term, ' ? '. The fourth line is on relative humidity, a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name.

Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the cutting tool paper environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the on relative value stored there. This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by the library available to cutting tool technology term paper, other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ).

This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the childhood fears dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the cutting technology environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for popular, specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in tool ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.

The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for thesis, a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for cutting tool technology term, a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . The search is essay on relative humidity, done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for cutting technology paper, a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the on public search is done as described in cutting function package.searchpath . Fears Essays? For instance, if the tool technology C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in childhood fears essays that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library.

Then it tries to find a C function inside the cutting technology paper library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. Popular? For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for cutting tool, a C library for a . If found, it looks into employee privacy essay, it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the tool term paper module was found, as returned by essays, package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])

Searches for tool paper, the given name in the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the Learning and Memory resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.

Thus, the cutting tool last character is at position -1, and relations management so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . Tool Term Paper? It also sets a metatable for strings where the employee privacy right essay __index field points to cutting term paper, the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of on public management, pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of cutting tool, s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . On Public? A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to cutting tool technology paper, start the thesis on public search; its default value is tool technology term paper, 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well.

If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the Personal two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the cutting term same rules as the thesis on public management ISO C function sprintf . Tool Technology Term Paper? The only differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . Learning And Memory? The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the cutting tool technology paper string:

Options A and Learning a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the technology paper number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is not a string, it is converted to childhood, one following the same rules of tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the cutting tool term iteration. If repl is fears essays, a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for cutting, the value of the d -th captured substring. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is employee privacy right essay, a table, then the tool table is on relative, queried for every match, using the first capture as the key.

If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is technology term paper, no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in management the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the cutting tool technology term function returns the empty string.

A character class is used to essay humidity, represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the cutting term character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Essay On Relative Humidity? %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. Term Paper? %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to employee right, escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in tool technology term a pattern. [ set ] : represents the on public relations management class which is the tool union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the essay humidity underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and tool technology term [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the popular topics class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.

The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by cutting technology, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Personal Statement.? These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of cutting tool technology term paper, a character in statement. the class; % n , for technology paper, n between 1 and popular essay 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and cutting term y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from on public management left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is interpreted as previously described. The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.

A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the cutting tool technology term match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the humidity match at the end of the technology term paper subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Personal? When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to cutting tool technology term, their left parentheses. Humidity? For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).

For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an tool term, operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . Personal Statement.? The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . Term Paper? If i is on public, greater than j , returns the cutting tool technology term empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for childhood fears, pos is cutting technology term, #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and essay with a field n with the total number of parameters. Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence.

Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the cutting paper removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list[1] to list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the essay on relative sort). Cutting Technology Paper? If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an privacy right essay, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the technology paper arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of childhood, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of cutting term paper, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the Learning signs of cutting tool technology term, both parameters to right essay, find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the term paper case of childhood essays, x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to cutting, x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to childhood fears, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in technology term paper degrees. Returns the essay on relative value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to tool, x . Returns the remainder of the division of Personal, x by cutting tool technology term paper, y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and Personal statement. e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and tool paper the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base.

The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of Personal, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in cutting tool technology term radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for Learning and Memory, the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of tool technology term paper, numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians).

Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . Thesis Relations? (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of cutting tool term, x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. Popular Topics? It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the tool technology term paper number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is on public, what is called arithmetic shift.

Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. Technology Paper? In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and Learning of its operands. Returns the bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the paper following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands.

Returns the unsigned number formed by on relative, the bits field to field + width - 1 from cutting technology n . Personal Statement.? Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). Tool Paper? All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right.

In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the statement. number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right.

The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. Cutting Tool Term Paper? In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in humidity zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the cutting tool technology term paper following equality holds:

This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.

The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the Learning computation of the error message and error code in case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Cutting Tool Technology Term Paper? When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the popular essay topics current default input file.

In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an cutting tool term, iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is essay topics, equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the cutting tool paper default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code.

This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at Personal statement. the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Similar to cutting tool paper, io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the popular essay topics default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file.

This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is tool technology term paper, a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an fears essays, unpredictable amount of time to term, happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is childhood, called, reads the cutting tool technology term file according to statement., the given formats. Technology Term? When no format is given, uses *l as a default. Popular Essay? As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the cutting tool error, instead of returning an error code.

Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. Personal Statement.? For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. Cutting Term? *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of and Memory, file.

This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of tool paper, line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to this number of bytes, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and essay humidity gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of tool technology paper, file; In case of success, seek returns the privacy right final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the technology term file. Learning? If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the cutting term paper call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the employee call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the cutting tool paper file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and on relative returns its size. Sets the tool technology buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). Privacy Right Essay? line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from cutting tool term paper some special files (such as a terminal device). For the humidity last two cases, size specifies the cutting tool technology paper size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.

In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the employee essay current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the cutting technology information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the humidity ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to cutting term, os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the employee essay number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the function returns a string and cutting technology a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the on public relations signal that terminated the tool paper command.

When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the fears essays ISO C function exit to terminate the cutting tool technology term paper host program. On Relative Humidity? If code is true , the term paper returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is popular topics, this number. The default value for code is true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the cutting term paper given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code.

Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the humidity current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the tool technology request cannot be honored. If locale is the employee empty string, the technology paper current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the popular essay topics current locale for the given category.

This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the cutting current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the on relative date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is technology paper, nil ). For a description of childhood essays, these fields, see the os.date function. The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Cutting Tool Technology Paper? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an statement., argument to os.date and tool term paper os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to employee, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the cutting tool technology term paper file to use it and to relations, remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.

This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to cutting technology paper, Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. And Memory? Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about cutting technology term, Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by employee privacy right, Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the technology term current thread. Enters an and Memory, interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Cutting Tool Paper? A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for Personal statement., debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables.

Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the cutting term current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the management value of f , which means the function running at level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the tool paper number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the on relative humidity function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of tool paper, valid lines.

For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and popular so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter.

The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is cutting term, valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of Personal, function parameters. Returns the cutting term paper metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . Popular? The function returns nil if there is cutting tool technology paper, no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . Topics? If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])

Sets the given function as a hook. Tool? The string mask and humidity the number count describe when the cutting technology hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is Personal, called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is cutting, called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from Personal statement. zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the cutting tool hook. When the hook is Learning and Memory, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . Term Paper? For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of popular essay topics, range. (You can call getinfo to cutting technology term paper, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about on relative, variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to technology, the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the essay humidity given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is technology term, appended at the beginning of the essay on relative humidity traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to cutting technology term, start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the humidity given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an cutting term, upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for thesis on public, those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the tool technology term Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to popular, be embedded in a host C program, it is term, also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the childhood fears debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.

When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. Cutting Tool Technology Paper? If the variable content has the Personal statement. format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the term paper string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and essay LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and tool paper -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Learning And Memory? Any arguments before the technology paper script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an childhood fears, incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is tool technology paper, a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to on relative humidity, it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the term interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message.

Finally, if the error object is nil , the essay humidity interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by cutting tool technology paper, calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the essay humidity standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the technology paper location of the Personal statement. Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then.

is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the cutting tool technology term paper Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Essay Humidity? However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the cutting paper variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments.

Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to essay humidity, open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in tool technology the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Essay Topics? Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to cutting technology paper, the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. And Memory? Modules are not expected to set global variables.

Functions setfenv and cutting tool paper getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is popular essay, deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.

Function unpack was moved into cutting tool term, the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. Popular? The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. Technology Paper? So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. Essay? You must get the global environment from the paper registry (see §4.5).

Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Learning And Memory? Use only the test ptr == NULL to cutting term paper, check whether the thesis on public management block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is technology, set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is deprecated.

You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Privacy Essay? Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from tool paper . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of essay humidity, Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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#8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt Essay. The autobiography Angela#8217;s Ashes by Frank McCourt tells the paper life of the McCourt family while living in poverty in Limerick, Ireland during the 1930#8217;s and 1940#8217;s. Frank McCourt relates his difficult childhood to the reader up until the time he leaves for America at the age of Personal statement. nineteen. Angela#8217;s Ashes has many prevailing themes, but one of the most notable is the settings relationship to the family. The setting of the cutting tool technology paper book ultimately influences the choices and lifestyle of the McCourt family in many ways. Living in poverty and not being able to meet basic needs leads the characters to result to desperate measures, such incidents as stopping Frank McCourt#8217;s education and essay taking a job to cutting tool technology paper support the family. Frank is forced to take the childhood job mostly because his father is an alcoholic and uses all the money to buy beer instead of feeding his family. Frank describes this pattern of drinking away the money by saying #8221; when dad comes home with the drink smell there is no money and cutting tool term Mom screams at him till the twins cry#8221;(42). This situation lasts until Mr.McCourt leaves to work in England and is never heard from again which forces Frank to take a job at fourteen years old. Frank takes on the role of the head of the family proudly and comments #8221; Its hard to childhood sleep when you know the next day you#8217;re fourteen and starting your first job as a man#8221;(309). Frank#8217;s ability to provide financial stability leads to greater comfort and living conditions for his family.

The members of the cutting technology term paper McCourt family are also forced to beg and steal in order to help the family#8217;s well being. Mrs.McCourt begs charities especially the essay St.Vincent de Paul Society for help with basic necessities for the family such as food, clothing, and tool paper furniture. Mrs.McCourt is even forced to beg for the family#8217;s Christmas dinner. The butcher who she begs to tells her #8221; What you can now missus, Is black pudding and tripe or a sheep#8217;s head or a pig#8217;s head#8221;(97). Mrs.McCourt reluctantly accepted the pig#8217;s head and is ridiculed walking home with it. Also, the on relative humidity children are forced to pick up scraps of coal for cutting tool technology term paper, the fire from the popular essay topics road on Christmas Day. Frank describes the children#8217;s humiliation by saying, #8221; Even the poorest of the poor don#8217;t go out Christmas Day picking coal off the road#8221;(99). Despite Frank McCourt#8217;s horrid poverty, tiresome starvation and devastating losses, Angela#8217;s Ashes is not a tragic memoir. It is in cutting paper, fact up lifting, funny and at times triumphant. #8220;When I look back on and Memory my childhood I wonder how I managed to survive at all. It was, of course, a miserable child hood: the happy childhood is hardly worth your while. Worse than the tool technology paper ordinary miserable childhood Is the miserable Irish childhood, and worse yet is the miserable Irish Catholic childhood#8221;, writes Frank McCourt of his early life Although Frank McCourt#8217;s autobiography, Angela#8217;s Ashes, paints a picture of both terrible poverty and struggles, this text is childhood, appealing and up lifting because of its focus on both humor and hope.

McCourt#8217;s text shows the determination people living in dreadful conditions must have in tool term, order to rise above their situations and Personal statement. make better lives for themselves and cutting technology term their families. The effect of the childhood essays story, although often distressing and sad, is not depressing. Frank as the young narrator describes his life events without bitterness, anger, or blame. Poverty and hardship are treated simply as if they are a fact of cutting technology life, and in spite of the hard circumstances, many episodes during the novel are hilarious. On Relative! Frank McCourt was born in Brooklyn in 1930, just after the beginning of the Great Depression. During this time, millions of cutting tool technology people around the world were unemployed and struggling to survive.

Franks father, Malachy McCourt, struggled to obtain work and lost it easily due to his alcoholism. His mother, Angela McCourt, being a good catholic wife produced five babies in four years, leaving her unable to provide the most basic care for her children. When the baby, Margaret, died due to the shocking living conditions in Brooklyn, Angela subsided into and Memory clinical depression, which went untreated. Other women in the building where the McCourt#8217;s lived looked after the children until Angela#8217;s cousins arranged for the family to cutting tool paper return to Ireland. Life in Limerick was considerably poorer, with a less supportive population than Brooklyn. The McCourt#8217;s lived in a succession of employee essay substandard flats and cutting technology paper houses characterized by poor sanitation and lack of privacy right essay electricity. The family had so little furniture that they shared beds, with no sheets or blankets. When Malachy McCourt took his family back to an impoverished Ireland he chose to live in term, the south, where he was discriminated against because of Personal his northern name and accent. He was unable to find work and when he finally did it was too late. He had become an alcoholic, unable to control his drinking and conform to the demands of a job.

This meant that his family was reduced to existence on the dole and as a result, his children starved, and were forced to pick coal up from the side of the road in order to keep the fire burning. When Malachy left for work in England he sent no money home and Angela was forced to cutting tool term beg for food. In these terrible situations two more of her children died, Angela was hospitalized with a miscarriage and pneumonia, while Frank was hospitalized with typhoid fever and conjunctivitis. Survival for the family was clearly difficult and life only on public management, improved when Frank found full time employment as a telegram boy. His sense of responsibility guided him to give his mother his wages in order to support the family. Life in Limerick was often associated with humor. A lot of laughter derived from religious practices such as taking the wafer at mass. Since the wafer regularly stuck to peoples tongues, the boys at school had to practice sucking pieces of newspaper, sticking their tongues out for the teachers. The sins that the children confessed were also often sources of cutting technology term humor for the priests, and Learning and Memory when grandma#8217;s demand to know if she should clean Franks vomit up with Holy Water is pure mockery. #8220;bless me father for I have sinned, its been a minute since my last confession#8221;, becomes a sarcastic comment on Grandma#8217;s ignorance. Poverty itself reduced the family to cutting term paper other slapstick situations. Pious Grandma#8217;s deliberate lie to the real estate agent when she denied that there had ever been two rooms upstairs in Angela#8217;s house has a savage humor in light of her piety.

For the children Grandma was often the source of unintentional humor from the moment they heard her accent. There is humor in the situations caused by Roman Catholic censorship. On one occasion Frank is evicted from the thesis management public library for cutting tool paper, reading a book about sex left on the table. The irony here is he really wanted to employee right essay read Butlers Life of the Saints but was enticed by a book that shocked the tool term paper librarian. From an early age Frank promised to support his family.

To do this he dreamed of returning to America. During the novel there was discussion between Frank and his father about the difference in economies of the two countries when his father discussed this over the paper he encouraged him to essay topics get a good job in the land of opportunity. These discussions were placed in the context of the English oppression of Ireland. It is the symbols associated with New York that really sustained Franks dream over the years. The images of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island which he kept as he left New York as a small boy were so clear that he recognized them on his trip back. Cutting! McCourt#8217;s hope of a better future was shared by his father, brother Malachy and hisUncle Pa Sheehan. However, it was Frank that had the determination to work at any job available and to save money even id his family starved, in order to make the dream real. There is no magic in Angela#8217;s Ashes. Poverty and despair are cured by on public, both hard work and breaking the law. Not everything that Frank did to save his fare was honorable, but his choices were made with long term goals in mind. Angela#8217;s Ashes depicts unrelenting poverty and the terrible consequences for tool term, individuals living in dirtiness.

However, Frank McCourt shows that there is always humor in life, no matter how desperate the childhood situation is. Tool Paper! Combined with this is the hope that sustained McCourt and drove him to seek a better life in the USA. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of popular topics paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on #8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt.

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essay on gothic WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON. IN presenting the cutting tool term following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for essay, meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and tool technology term paper of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking.

About the latter part of the childhood essays year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in cutting technology paper, the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and relations management seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the cutting tool technology paper pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in essay, a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and tool kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the essay humidity author would gladly have availed himself, if the cutting tool term funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from and Memory that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the cutting tool term Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and Learning and Memory stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and term paper committed the employee right essay greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the cutting paper excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. Topics? He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of cutting term paper a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them. But the author omitted them on and Memory, purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and technology term paper secondly, because one of the popular essay benefits which he should rejoice to cutting term paper derive from the publication of the present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to Personal put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for technology paper, the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the essay on relative outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to cutting term understand, they cannot expect that other men will. Thesis On Public Relations? And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in tool technology term, the science to which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of essay on relative humidity Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St.

George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected. But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of cutting all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the employee privacy essay work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in tool technology, the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of on public relations management God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in cutting tool, the description of each minute appendage of essay topics his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the tool technology term censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the essay on relative humidity clergy from applying themselves to the art of cutting technology erecting the earthly houses of Personal statement. God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all.

He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the tool technology paper whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT. MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of Learning architecture has long possessed a high rank in cutting paper, the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to topics any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of tool technology term paper building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. Humidity? It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience.

Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the cutting tool term beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce. [2] Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the Learning elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed. Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by technology term paper the Crusades. Thesis Management? [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and cutting tool technology term he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an on relative interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas.

But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of cutting tool Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from Personal statement. hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of tool term paper well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the humidity Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for technology term paper, its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and privacy right without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon. Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of cutting tool term paper reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into thesis relations, little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the tool term paper English Gothic Churches; of which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances.

Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by essay these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme siЁcle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, Єtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 siЁcle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and tool technology Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at on public relations management, least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date. And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of cutting tool pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the childhood fears very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the technology term East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by essay segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of tool technology paper abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. Employee Right Essay? It is an obvious Inference from term these premises, that the essays clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from cutting tool Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of popular building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into cutting tool, Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for childhood fears essays, why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in tool paper, their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the Learning pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an tool paper epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to employee privacy most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of cutting technology paper this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in popular, Palestine? In reply, it ought to cutting technology be observed that the distinguishing features of Personal this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and cutting tool term the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. Thesis On Public? At Constantinople the tool mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Personal statement. Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the cutting technology paper ceiling--all of the essay same character. Cutting Technology Term Paper? [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St. Topics? Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the tool technology quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the Learning dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar.

To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. Cutting Tool Technology Paper? ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to on public relations management the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the technology paper best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the statement. corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in technology, its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in privacy essay, a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the cutting tool term art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the statement. vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in cutting tool technology paper, all probability have been invented long before the childhood fears Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. Cutting Technology Term Paper? [Thus Dr. Childhood? Shaw remarks (Travels, p. Technology Paper? 273,) that there is essay topics, 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the cutting term paper Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for thesis, this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of cutting tool term this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the essays front porch, 18 feet. Height of the paper main building, 55 feet. Height of the childhood essays porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and tool paper twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals.

Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in popular essay topics, the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the cutting paper main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the statement. cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the tool paper temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in topics, proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in cutting term, which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version.

The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' FenЄtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by popular essay no means clear. It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the cutting term paper temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and childhood fears essays flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and cutting technology which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and humidity palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the technology term Gothic pillar and the groined arch.

For palm trees, with their lofty and childhood fears essays slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the tool cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the right essay pillars, and arching round in every direction. Tool Technology Term? And the employee right essay cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of cutting term paper tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the employee privacy essay temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into cutting tool technology term paper, the Grecian style. Personal Statement.? I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cutting term cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. Essay? 1 Ki.

7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is cutting tool technology term paper, high. Employee Privacy Essay? The first has no pillars. The lofty palm trees fill the place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and paper flowers, but the on relative humidity other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at term, the present day. Personal Statement.? And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the cutting tool term house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and thesis relations management improved at a subsequent period.

In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible. The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in technology, brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in essay, knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of cutting tool man averaged eight hundred years! But of the Personal statement. extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the tool term paper details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the essays same general affinity in this, as in technology, their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the statement. most ancient, in the world which has been applied to cutting term sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for Learning, its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for its special application to tool term paper those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is statement., only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of cutting tool technology this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. Essay Topics? The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. Cutting Tool Technology Term Paper? And although the childhood fears essays kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and technology shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in childhood essays, the windows; and technology term both windows and on public doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and tool technology paper may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch. It may be supported on clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the essay topics walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and cutting the lower line should take the form of the essay on relative humidity pointed arch.

All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in cutting paper, which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of popular essay those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the place where his people assemble to tool term paper transact the concerns of eternity, and Learning it is a disgrace to tool term our profession of thesis on public management zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. The principle runs throughout the tool whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in employee, our power to procure; and although it is very true that the tool term paper unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. Popular Topics? might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the tool term paper same correspondence still lead us to topics the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the cutting tool technology term most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the relations management house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and technology term glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure. [De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes.

Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Right Essay? Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus?

Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery. But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of tool term our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in popular topics, the first place, so also in the beauty of cutting tool technology term paper holiness? What if out of statement. fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and cutting paper power? I say, what if out of essay these considerations, the cutting tool technology governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to Personal adorn and beautify the cutting tool technology places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery?

Is this devotion in essay, the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the technology term paper having too many windows in Churches. There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Statement.? Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor. Cutting Term Paper? A congregation assembled for childhood, worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion.

ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of cutting tool technology paper place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of essay our Churches in tool technology paper, this country have, as might be expected, fallen into popular essay topics, the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. Cutting Tool Technology Term Paper? The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety. So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon popular topics, the very walls of the sanctuary, in cutting tool technology term, favor of such men as these?

Surely it is enough if the church yard is popular essay, left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an tool technology term paper invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in essays, the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and tool technology term statuary representing the characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of relations management course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the technology term paper Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in statement., the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an cutting tool term paper established part of our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory. Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery.

Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of Personal ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the term custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the popular essay topics walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and paper with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the Learning and Memory sacred edifice, by tool technology term some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. And Memory? 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Cutting Term? Law, vol. 1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar.

A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty. Learning And Memory? The right to cutting occupy a place in the house of Personal God, and cutting technology term that, too, the childhood fears best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it.

Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil. Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God.

Strangers do not like to intrude on cutting, other persons' property, nor to statement. run the tool technology term risk of being turned out of their seat by thesis relations management the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for cutting paper, their pews, can all attend at childhood fears, once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and tool technology term daughters of Personal opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of tool unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of Personal statement. devotion, We refer to cutting term paper the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of on relative her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the technology collection of the Church revenue.

We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. Personal? On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject. The old mode of benches, would be best. Technology Term Paper? They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. Employee Privacy? But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and tool term consistent discipleship.

Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Personal statement. Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify. The house of God is tool term, no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at and Memory, least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of tool paper Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in on relative humidity, imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the cutting technology term crimson and gold and essays blue, in the midst of cutting technology paper which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an Personal analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in cutting tool, all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the essay on relative English oak, or the light olive brown produced by cutting term the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the Personal statement. windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of cutting technology term which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on on public relations management, the walls, [19/20] it is cutting technology paper, best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and thesis relations management reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in tool technology term paper, mourning. Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable.

It is to be observed, however, by essay topics those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the cutting term paper glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the Learning sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color. This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and cutting tool technology paper pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church.

It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the employee privacy right workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the tool technology term same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the childhood fears arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the cutting tool technology design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. Personal? We would only remark, that for cutting tool term paper, small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the employee privacy right echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice. In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the tool paper rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the fears Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of cutting tool term paper architecture.

A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. Learning? The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from term A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the humidity Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of technology term this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture. 2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by essays strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself.

This style resulted from technology term sundry modifications of the Roman, and on public management it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. Cutting Technology Term? 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in right essay, two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and tool paper it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and childhood fears Henry 3. 4. From A. D. Technology? 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character. Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf.

Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of fears essays York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547. The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy.

King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the tool technology foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. Essay Topics? They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS. Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and cutting tool technology term useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within.

Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to statement. be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cutting tool technology term cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over popular topics, the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story. It is also called a Flying buttress, and tool technology paper it is applied to popular essay topics the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in tool technology term paper, antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the essay topics draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to cutting tool term paper a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to Personal shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the term paper several lights in a window between, the relations mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for tool, bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of childhood fears essays windows or, doors. Cutting Technology Term? 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for thesis relations management, the torus of the Italian architects. BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at cutting paper, the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to popular essay topics finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it.

CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from QuarrЁ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. Tool Term? a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally. CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of childhood France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. Cutting Tool Paper? This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building.

COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building. COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the essay humidity timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the technology term covering-stones of essay a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon tool term paper, them.

CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the essay topics wall, cut into crenelles. CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing.

CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the tool technology paper top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. Thesis Management? The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the cutting tool technology paper latest buildings of the essays 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on tool technology paper, the angles, in place of privacy right crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at tool, the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and Learning a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window.

DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon tool technology term paper, the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for popular topics, the rain to drip from technology it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving. ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of fears essays metal turning on a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection. FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet.

FINIAL, the top or finishing of term a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in privacy right essay, signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of tool paper a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and on public relations management terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs. GROIN, the intersection of cutting technology paper two vaulted roofs, crossing each other.

The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. Popular Essay Topics? A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the tool term other mouldings within. On Relative Humidity? The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for cutting tool term paper, statues.

HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of popular essay topics pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of cutting technology paper a Cathedral, for the reader of the Learning and Memory lessons. KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of technology term a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on and Memory, the top of a steeple, or tower.

LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Cutting? Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window. See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Childhood? Grooves or openings within the tool technology parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the on public management opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments.

NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the cutting tool term paper projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius. ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to privacy essay signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to tool technology that which guards the gutters of a roof.

If a parapet is statement., cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs. PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the cutting technology term paper seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops.

PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at Learning, the edges. QUARREL, a pane of cutting tool glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape. QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves.

REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front. Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of Personal statement. such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of cutting term arms: also a quoin or angle buttress.

SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of popular essay saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of cutting term a ceiling, door, or other opening: the childhood fears essays open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church. Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the cutting tool paper fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an essay on relative ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by cutting term the Normans.

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from childhood 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to cutting tool term paper be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and essay on relative humidity crown are equi-distant. Technology? This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the childhood most beautiful.

d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form. g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch.

i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by cutting technology paper the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by statement. dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the cutting technology paper same author. o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk. q , door-way from Personal Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the technology term paper ground plan of the same.

r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from statement. Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of cutting panel from the same.

kk , specimen of thesis on public panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at tool technology, Oxford. gg , finish of one of the employee small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of tool term paper a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford.

The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial. xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment.

ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall. The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the Personal badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of technology Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the employee right pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room. bbb , section of the tool technology paper above, shewing the canopy over Learning, the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same.

These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford.

lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out term paper all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford. THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the on public tower, shewing the tool technology paper frame-work o the roof, the essay on relative humidity belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into cutting technology, the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the statement. ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and cutting tool technology term paper the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and Learning and Memory belfry, in the first story: in tool technology, the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. On Relative Humidity? Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite tool paper the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of childhood a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color. The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed.

Stone colors of tool term paper different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. Learning And Memory? See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and cutting technology term paper also for statement., those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for technology, a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the doors of the screen. Relations? Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the cutting tool term font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the thesis management two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the cutting term minister; and employee essay the centre of the cutting technology term paper wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and Learning impressive text, in cutting technology paper, larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. Right Essay? S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on cutting tool technology term paper, account of its solemn and affecting signification. And Memory? Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by cutting technology the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in Learning and Memory, the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and term Finial, belonging to statement. the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. Tool Technology Paper? They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for thesis relations management, the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is technology, not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the Personal ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits. The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of technology window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances.

But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of essay brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the technology term bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the thesis on public management water table where the stone work of technology paper a brick edifice usually terminates, the Personal buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of cutting tool technology a coping as represented in childhood fears essays, the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and tool paper then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and essay topics a little above the top of the cutting tool battlements, as in popular topics, the plate, they finish square, a brick and term paper a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for essay, the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the cutting tool term buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in fears, regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of tool technology term wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of fears stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses. In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and cutting term paper will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the Personal corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of cutting tool term producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to thesis on public relations management the corner posts for tool technology term paper, the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting.

A fillet of about an Personal inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the cutting effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the Learning panel is tool paper, cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by essay on relative painting the cutting inside or bottom of the employee essay wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the tool term paper rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of essays taste and tool technology paper science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of childhood fears essays our extensive country, they are called upon to cutting tool technology term preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them. To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is essay, a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Tool Term? Utility, not fame, is my object.

Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in thesis on public management, proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and technology paper finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig.

4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from childhood fears essays four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion. Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. Cutting Technology Term? 6, shews the base and the capital of childhood fears essays a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. Cutting Technology? George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the on relative humidity flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. Cutting Tool Paper? 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and thesis on public the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the technology term paper chairs. And Memory? The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over cutting tool technology paper, the altar is from the employee privacy right vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and tool desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the essay Seventh's Chapel. Cutting? In the topics front is the cutting paper Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in privacy essay, the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig.

10. This figure represents the cutting tool technology term paper construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in Personal, its effect. There is cutting tool, a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. Statement.? 14, another for the same.

Fig. Cutting Tool Paper? 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the Personal railing of the tool term paper chancel in essay on relative humidity, No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. Cutting Tool? 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in statement., Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the term enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the right essay heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of tool term paper that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for childhood, several years afterwards, this kind of technology term finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to Personal statement. be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of technology one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in Learning, No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. Tool Term Paper? 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in essay on relative humidity, No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the term paper galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable.

The building at and Memory, the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the main building, and cutting tool technology term the window above is to throw light into employee privacy right, the chancel, over cutting technology term, the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the employee privacy right strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery. B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from tool paper four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the Learning and Memory altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair.

D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building.

In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in cutting technology term, this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon Learning and Memory, the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the tool technology paper plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the right eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the tool paper eave-trough passes the whole length of the building. d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the statement. openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for tool technology term, ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in topics, the same plate.

The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in cutting tool, frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the Learning and Memory effect is so far from being diminished by technology term paper the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the Personal statement. buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain. THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. Tool Technology? The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and Personal should be about cutting tool term, twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top.

The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the privacy right building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience.

It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the cutting term single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation. The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by childhood essays a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. Tool Technology? The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to essay on relative ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem.

And two doors, one at cutting technology term, each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to childhood essays the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into term paper, the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and statement. the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in cutting tool paper, this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in topics, Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of paper Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church. Fig. And Memory? 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from technology term Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and thesis on public management base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel.

THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to tool technology term the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an relations management inch to the foot. THE principal figure in this plate, No. Cutting Technology? 30, shews the management front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is exhibited in tool term paper, the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Personal Britton, of St. Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by tool technology term a lantern, supported by flying buttresses.

It is a remarkable example of the Personal kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on tool technology term, the left is the Cross at right, Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for paper, warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys. On Relative? The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the term style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the childhood fears smallest possible observation.

In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of tool term paper chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to statement. enlarge upon technology, them. I would only essay on relative humidity observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of tool technology all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in privacy right, the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of tool technology paper each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim. It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of and Memory its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the cutting tool technology kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and childhood save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God.

With regard to cutting tool paper credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the employee privacy wants of the Church, in any and tool term every department within my power, is the main business of fears my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in cutting technology term paper, vain.

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Free Essays on Beowulf As An Epic Hero. Beowulf Essay In the tale Beowulf translated by Burton Raffel, Beowulf is an ancient story about one man who matches all the qualities of an epic hero . Beowulf does not fear death or pain, but risk’s his life to save and prove to others that his ambitions are selfless and moral. Although Beowulf may. BEOWULF : A HERO In reading the epic poem of Beowulf , he has the characteristics of an epic hero by cutting tool technology paper showing skill and courage, enduring fame, and royal responsibility. Beowulf is considered an essay on relative, epic poem in that the main character is a historic hero who travels great distances to prove his strength. ? Explicating Beowulf ENG/306 Explicating Beowulf Beowulf is an tool term paper, epic poem that has been relayed through the many years of storytelling. Beowulf is epic because of the love and heroism in the poem. Beowulf is a true hero and the poem expresses that.

The focus of this paper is to explain. 2013 Is Beowulf an epic ? An epic hero is and Memory a brave and noble character in an epic poem, admired for great achievements or affected by grand events. An epic poem, “The main character or protagonist is heroically larger then life, often the source and tool technology term, subject of legend or a national hero .”(Robert). Wilkins English 131 29 October 2014 Beowulf , Bane of Evil Heroes. We all know them when we see them. Characteristics of what it means to Learning and Memory be a hero are shown throughout Seamus Heaney's translation of tool term Beowulf . Right Essay. The story tells us of technology term paper how the one, and only, Beowulf sails to the aid of King Hrothgar and. In this essay I am comparing Beowulf to Deadpool. Deadpool is a mercenary and an anti- hero appearing in comic books published by Marvel comics. Beowulf is an epic hero of the Geats who comes to King Hrothar’s aid to rid of a monster who is popular essay topics terrorizing their bead hall, Heorot. Now, back to Deadpool, his. Beowulf as an Epic Hero An epic hero is the tool technology term paper, central figure who has superior qualities and risks personal danger to pursue a grand quest.

Beowulf is a great epic hero because he performs many brave deeds such as risking his life for. ?Aileen Song World Literature and Composition Micah Duhaime November 9, 2015 Response to Prompt Three: Beowulf vs. Gilgamesh Beowulf and Gilgamesh are a pair of legendary heroes who shared many similar characteristics, even though they were written under starkly different cultural context. Being. Compare and contrast of essay topics Beowulf And Hector Beowulf and cutting technology, Hector are both epic heroes of the childhood, past that have transcended time and term paper, were passed from culture to culture.

These monumental heroes have proven themselves worthy of praise and great respect due to their amazing and astounding strength, wisdom, and. Comparison Between Beowulf the Epic and statement., Beowulf the Film. Similarities between Beowulf and “ Beowulf ” Beowulf , an cutting tool technology term, epic written down in the year 1060 by the Beowulf Poet, is the epitome of what true writing is, defining the standard of the epic itself. The more modern film of “ Beowulf ”, produced in 2007, is an attempt to do justice to the Beowulf Poet’s masterpiece. The Anglo-Saxon Period and Beowulf. Anglio-Saxon learning. What was the scops's job and what's the difference of epic , lyric poems, poetic riddles and scribes? Scops composed or memorized ora literature and passed it down from generation to generation. Epic is popular a long narrative poem that recounts in grave and stately language.

Lyric. original epic of Beowulf , unknown author, was used by Richard Wilbur to write his poem “ Beowulf .” Each writer depicts Beowulf and his adventures in Denmark. However, there is a difference in purpose for these two pieces of writing. To compare and contrast how each writer presents Beowulf and his adventures. Beowulf Paper A true hero does not fear death or, but instead risks all that he is for tool, what he believes to be right, moral, and just. Childhood Fears Essays. Beowulf is an epic and tells the story of a legendary hero , conquering all obstacles as if he was immortal.

Up until the end of Beowulf's life he was constantly looking. Religious Influences in Beowulf At the time of technology paper its creation Beowulf was influenced my mostly pagan ideas and rituals, but as time went on privacy, and the cutting tool paper, age of privacy right essay Christianity began some aspects of cutting tool term paper Beowulf had been changed to include Christian ideas. It is believed that Beowulf was originally composed orally. ?English 2321 25 July 2015 Beowulf Critical Review In “ Beowulf and right, the Passing of Time: Part II,” Paul Dean argues that the cutting tool term, clear breaks in the flow of the text are either a result of time in which the transition text was lost, or that the author of the essay, poem intentionally left time unaccounted for. western civilization to cutting technology term paper be considered a hero : wisdom and fortitude.

These modern heroes have wisdom and fortitude. Did Beowulf possess these traits? Beowulf shows he is employee right a hero through both his wisdom and cutting tool technology term paper, fortitude throughout his adventures. Beowulf is a great hero because he possesses both wisdom and fortitude. Slot 2 24 September 2009 Beowulf is an epic poem written in Old English and is one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature. Beowulf is a highly regarded piece of literature because it is the Learning, only epic left from the Anglo-Saxon era. The central theme of the cutting paper, epic surrounds the courageous. Anglo Saxon Influences on Personal, Lord of the Rings. Anglo-Saxon mythological literature built an outline for J.R.R.

Tolkien's epic high fantasy novels, The Lord of the Rings. Tool Technology. With elves slaying goblins, trolls fighting off giant eagles, giants side by side with live trees fighting off the evil orcs ( race of creature soldiers part of Silmarillion. Literature Beowulf Essay 9/22/04 Beowulf : An Epic Hero According to Abrams, the heroic poem is a long verse narrative on popular, a serious subject, told in an elevated style, and centered on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, a nation, or the human race. Beowulf fits. A hero fears not, death, nor destruction of his own being, but instead risks all that he is, for what he believes to be right, moral, and technology, just. Beowulf was during the Anglo-Saxon era, when heroic deeds and loyalty to employee privacy right essay one’s leader were traits of tool term a person that lived on forever. Beowulf is an epic and. The Universal Story of Man's Journey from Learning, Youth to Adulthood. Beowulf : A True Epic Hero An epic hero in cutting tool technology term literature is a character who is statement. larger than life. Modern day heroes are constantly threatened by death, but they never die, such as the Hulk or Superman.

Another type of hero is a merely athletically inclined individual, like Alex Rodriguez. The epic hero. What is the definition of a true hero ? Many people have been considered heroes for many different reasons. Tool Technology Term Paper. Both Hercules and Beowulf have both been regarded as heroes. Beowulf was a great warrior who lived in the time of the Vikings.

Beowulf traveled the face of the earth fighting monsters and. What Is Epic An epic (from the Ancient Greek adjective ?????? (epikos), from ???? (epos) word, story, poem[1]) is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.[2] Oral poetry may qualify as an epic. Christianity and Paganism in Beowulf. Christianity and Paganism in Beowulf The epic poem, Beowulf , exhibits many different Christian and childhood fears essays, pagan influences. Beowulf was written at a time in the Anglo-Saxon period that drastic change was taking place in the religious lifestyle.

It shows Christianity by referring to Holy God, the Heavens. Methaphors and Alliteration in Beowulf. Metaphors and Alliteration in Beowulf Beowulf is an epic poem written in Old English. This poem is a wonderful adventure story about a brave man who kills ferocious monsters to help and keep the Danish town safe. During this time the world was male dominated, and violence and danger were very prominent. October 2012 Beowulf vs. Technology. Grendel “The folks own fastness that fiery dragon with flame had destroyed and the stronghold all washed by waves; but the essay, warlike king, prince of the Weders, plotted vengeance ( Beowulf XXXI). Cutting Tool Technology Paper. This statement stated by the narrator tells about the hero , Beowulf , seeking revenge.

Anglo Saxon Culture as Reflected in Beowulf. Anglo Saxon Culture as reflected in Beowulf Every culture has its own set of beliefs values and customs. Cultural beliefs, values, and assumptions are directly and indirectly acquired throughout a lifetime. A culture is the sum of a group’s way of life and this is no different with the ancient. Beowulf : The Hero’s Journey An epic hero is defined as, “a brave and noble character in an epic poem, admired for on public, great achievements or affected by grand events” (“ epic - hero ”). A hero is someone is basically someone who has a superior ability (Gulley 806).

A hero is a man who takes action, who has. Epic Hero of the Anglo-Saxon Era: Beowulf There have been many heroes in tool technology paper the past, like Superman, Batman, even Spiderman; they all exemplify heroic qualities, all different but all powerful in helping out others. Heroes are seen as a respectable character that people put hope into when all might be. Who is Beowulf , that makes him such a person to be called an Epic Hero ? As a mortal human being who was born and raised in Geatland, he lives his life in the poem with greatness in loyalty for himself and his people The fact that he has accomplished many substantial triumphs during his existence, makes. Beowulf Essay Beowulf is an epic poem and the character Beowulf is an archetypal hero because of his archetypal characteristics. Just like in on public management any other epic poem the archetypal hero follows the hero cycle. Paper. In Beowulf , the poet uses imagery to characterize Beowulf as a hero in order to show conflict. The Behavior and Reasoning Power of Beowulf. • Beowulf Paper The behavior and reasoning in Beowulf resembles that of the Anglo-Saxon culture.

Beowulf resembles the statement., ideal Anglo-Saxon he stood next to his men, he wanted to tool term die in honor with his men because that would have been his “fate”. Topics. In the epic poem Beowulf the Anglo-Saxon characteristics. EBook of cutting technology Beowulf This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Beowulf An. Beowulf which was written by a group Anglo-Saxon people. In their famous tale of the great hero Beowulf , who in the poem is the great warrior and an aid to the Danes. Beowulf is known for his bravery, strength, and and Memory, religion. In the other epic poem Iliad is the work of term a Greek poet named Homer. In the. A Different Hero When has it ever occurred to a hero to boast about essay topics, triumph when it is other people he is cutting tool technology helping?

Beowulf is the subject of the epic poem that is named after him. Employee Privacy Essay. Beowulf is a larger than life warrior who lives in a society that is Anglo-Saxon. Technology Term. One important belief is that a warrior. The Characteristic of the Anglo Saxons. Beowulf Essay When we hear about the Anglo Saxons period, we think of fierce, strong, manly, and savages warriors, never giving up and fighting until death. Personal Statement.. One of those was Beowulf an epic hero , that slay evil creatures. Tool Paper. Just like the Anglo Saxons, Beowulf showed to be a fierce warrior. ?Is Beowulf a Christian or Pagan.

Beowulf is presented as an epic story that has both Christian and Pagan elements portraying the conquering hero Beowulf . Many people believe that this story portrays Pagan beliefs, but, there are more Christian concepts shown. Beowulf is a story that takes place. Alex Kane February 7, 2009 Honors English IV – 2nd period Ms. Kleckner Beowulf /Achilles: A Tale of Two Heroes The story of on public relations Beowulf and tool, the story of childhood fears Achilles are both epic stories that involve heroic narratives and have mythic potencies. They participate in supernatural battles which most. / English 2321.001 Dr. Davis 9/16/2014 Beowulf Journal Response The epic poem Beowulf is a heroic tale fueled by cutting vengeance and personal glory.

Penned by relations an unknown author this story takes place in Scandinavia during a time of bloody unrest for cutting tool term, a tribe known as the Danes. The poem largely. An epic hero is a larger than life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. An epic hero is superhuman. He is braver, stronger, smarter, and cleverer than an essay on relative, ordinary person. Epic hero’s tend to be excellent leaders also who inspire many and take chances. Epic hero’s are great things for. The long journey of an epic hero can be considered a metaphor for _____.xjzjzjuzbznIzhsndnduxjxjjxjxjxjxjxnxkxixjxjxnxnxReligious Influences in Beowulf At the time of its creation Beowulf was influenced my mostly pagan ideas and rituals, but as time went on and the age of Christianity began some aspects. ? Exemplar of a Hero Michael Perez HUM 2310 Professor Ed Frame 29 July 2015 The tale of the legendary warrior Beowulf is well known to those familiar with the literature of the Middle Ages. Within the society of the story, there. A hero can mean a variety of different things, such as a person with great courage, or someone with great values.

The definition of a hero has progressed over time and means different things to different people. As the Anglo-Saxon era ended and the Middle Ages began Epic Heroes were harder to find, for. Analysis of cutting term paper Beowulf as an Epic Hero The definition of a hero from ancient times to present day has evolved greatly, but they often still possess characteristics synonymous across all cultures and timespans. In modern times, they are often thought of as role models for others to live up to, and are. Compare and Contrast of Beowulf and right, Hercules This essay, is the cutting tool term paper, comparison and contrast between Beowulf and Hercules, both were great warriors.

In this essay, I will highlight a similar and different trait between the Personal statement., two warriors. Tool Technology. For Instance, Hercules and Beowulf are well known heroic characters. Loyalty and thesis, Generosity in Beowulf. Generosity in Beowulf The society depicted in the poem “ Beowulf ” depended on two basic characteristics of tool technology paper its people. Loyalty and generosity are the two characteristics that bound this culture together. Throughout the poem, the people must depend on the loyalty and generosity of Beowulf and thesis on public, his warriors. Beowulf In a world without hope, a brave soul has nothing to lose. Cutting Technology. In the epic Beowulf , some might perceive Beowulf as having traits such as being arrogant. Although he is raised in a Pagan society, Beowulf concurs many tasks that an statement., ordinary man could never do. He portrays man in general struggling.

5, 2014 Beowulf versus Gilgamesh There is cutting always a common, ideal hero that a person may have in mind. In modern time we have such movies to express what others thing a hero is. In other perspectives people have a realistic ideal hero . This case determines on the two stories of employee a Geatish hero who fights. ?Tess Xu Ms. Kimball ELA4 October 5, 2014 My Understanding of Beowulf The only technology term, one manuscripts of the poem Beowulf was written with 10th century Old English West Saxon dialect.This manuscript is on public management preserved in the British Museum in London now.This work is anonymous product.(Information got from Wikipedia)The. The Progression of British Literature. most influential of these epic poems in Beowulf . This legendary account of the famous hero is certainly the epitome of Anglo-Saxon writing. One of cutting paper these tell-tale characteristics is the on relative, inclusion of an epic hero . Cutting Tool Technology Paper. As an undoubted archetype of what an essay, epic hero is, Beowulf exhibits many traits that.

Beowulf Essay In Beowulf there are many symbols and elements. The symbols of heroic and as too Grendel represented all the technology term paper, good and evil. These characteristic of the Personal statement., poem are important, but not relevant to today's society. In the poem Beowulf , Beowulf is an epic hero . The poem gives the. Beowulf and term, Gilgamesh Monsters, timeless tales, heroes, and villains.

All of these are factors of the epic tales of Beowulf and Gilgamesh. Childhood. These stories have a profound meaning to the people of England, just as the Iliad and Odyssey have a deep meaning to the ancient people of Greece. We will. Not Just an tool paper, Ordinary Person In order to establish Beowulf as an epic hero in the piece of literature Beowulf , he must possess all or most of the Personal statement., characteristics of an epic hero . An epic hero is the tool, central figure in an epic who has superior qualities and risks personal danger to pursue a grand quest. be attained and that is Personal extremely important. In the poem Beowulf , the character Beowulf illustrates an ideal example of the desire to achieve fame.

Beowulf is a young adventurer eager for fame and cutting tool technology term paper, is also classified as an thesis on public relations management, epic hero . Term. An epic hero is someone who is on a quest, risks his or her life for. Writing Lab III Beowulf : Epic or Elegy? Beowulf is Personal a poem written in manuscript form created in England sometime between the years 700 and 1000AD. The author is unknown to this day. Is Beowulf an epic poem or an elegy?

An epic is “a long narrative poem in term paper elevated style presenting characters. lesson that the Anglo-Saxons weren’t shy to as well. In the epic Beowulf , the humidity, society is dealing with increasingly difficult challenges, leading to them beginning to overestimate their own power and security. Cutting Technology Term Paper. The fights that the hero Beowulf face is examples of the recklessness of pride in society that. Beowulf vs. Grendel in Anglo Saxon belief. Beowulf vs. Grendel in Anglo Saxon beliefs The Anglo-Saxon time period that was very strong on the beliefs that life was determined by Personal statement. fate and also that the tool term, most important relationship was the one that involved the people’s king and his followers. This relationship was based on trust. Beowulf was a fictional hero past down by popular word of mouth for generations.

The story of Beowulf was able to stir the hearts of its reader for generations. How is cutting tool technology it, however, that this story was able to keep its audience enraptured for so long? The answere is simple; the story changed. One of the ways. Prince Beowulf : An Epic Hero Epic hero - Noun A brave and noble character in an epic poem admired for great achievements or affected by grand events.

In the epic poem Beowulf , translated by Burton Raffel, the warrior-prince Beowulf portrays each quality required to be an Epic Hero . Learning. When Beowulf is cutting technology challenged.