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Essays - Text response structure - year 12 English
Annotate a worksheet by text format, using comments. You can add notes to individual cells by using comments to give your reader additional context for the data it contains. Comedy Essay Killjoys Playboy Practice! When a cell has a comment, a red indicator appears in the corner of the cell. When you rest the pointer on the cell, the comment appears. Select the cell that you want to add a comment to response format, and do one of the following: On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click New Comment . Right-click the cell and then click Insert Comment . Note: To change the plan essay exam default name that is used for comment labels, see the Change the default name that is displayed in new comments section, later in this article. In the body of the comment, type the text response format comment text.
Click outside the comment box. Treva Lindsey Dissertation! The comment box disappears, but the comment indicator remains. Response Format! To see the comment, hover over florida latex thesis university, it. To keep the comment visible, see the Display or hide comments on the worksheet section. Note: When you sort data in a worksheet, comments sort together with the data. However, in PivotTable reports, comments do not move with the cell when you change the layout of the report. Select the cell that contains the comment that you want to edit. Format! On the atlantic thesis Review tab, in the Comments group, click Edit Comment . Keyboard shortcut You can also press Shift+F2.
Note: If the cell that you select does not have a comment, the Edit Comment command is not available in the Comments group. Instead, the New Comment command is available. Double-click the text in the comment, and text essay format, then in the comment text box, edit the comment text. Click the cell that contains the university comment that you want to delete and text, do one of the following: Right-click the cell and then click Delete Comment . On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Delete . By default, text in comments uses the font Tahoma in font size 9 . Writing London! You can't change the default font that is used, but you can change the format of the comment text in each comment. You can also change the shape of a comment. For example, you can use an oval callout instead of a rectangular comment. For more information, see the Change the shape of a comment section. Format comment text.
Select the text format cell that contains the comment that you want to format and do one of the latex thesis following: Right-click the cell and then click Edit Comment . On the Review tab, in response the Comments group, click Edit Comment . Keyboard shortcut You can also press Shift+F2. Note: If the cell that you select does not have a comment, the Edit Comment command is not available in the Comments group. Instead, the New Comment command is available. Select the comedy essay playboy practice theory comment text you want to format, and then do one of the following: Right-click the selection, click Format Comment and then, in the Format Comment dialog box, select the formatting options that you want. On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the formatting options that you want. Note: The Fill Color and text response essay format, Font Color options in the Font group are not available for comment text. To change the color of the text, you can right-click the selected comment text, and then click Format Comment . Click the File tab, then click Options . In Excel 2007: click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Excel Options . Plan Essay Exam! Click the Quick Access Toolbar category.
In the Choose commands from box, click All Commands . In the text list, select Edit Shape , click Add , and then click OK . This adds the Edit Shape button to the Quick Access Toolbar, which is located in the upper-left corner of the Excel window. In the worksheet, select the cell that contains the comment for which you want to change the paper shape. Text Response Essay! To display the comment on the worksheet, on the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Show/Hide Comment . Click the treva lindsey border of the comment. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Edit Shape , and then click Change Shape . Click the shape that you want to use. Format! Right-click the cell that has the comment that you want to change, and then click Show/Hide Comments . Plan Essay Exam! Click the text response essay format comment box border so that sizing handles appear. Make sure that the pointer is not in the comment.
Do one of the following: To move the comment, drag the border of the comment box, or press an arrow key. To resize the comment, drag the plan essay exam handles on the sides and corners of the comment box. Text Response! Select the cell or cells that contain the comments that you want to copy. Fair And Foul Is Fair Macbeth Essay! On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy . Keyboard shortcut You can also press Ctrl+C. Select the upper-left cell of the paste area. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste , and then click Paste Special . Keyboard shortcut You can also press Ctrl+Alt+V.
In the Paste Special dialog box, under Paste , click Comments , and then click OK . To cancel the moving border, click another cell or press Esc. Do not press Enter after you click OK . If you do, cell contents are copied to the paste area in addition to the comment. Copied comments replace any existing comments in the destination area. By default, Excel displays an indicator only text response essay format, when a cell contains a comment. You can control how Excel displays comments and indicators in cells by changing the default settings to always show or hide the comments. Change the default display settings for comments.
Click the research paper File tab, then click Options . In Excel 2007: click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Excel Options . In the text response essay Advanced category, under Display , do one of the following: To hide both comments and indicators throughout the workbook, under For cells with comments, show , click No comments or indicators . To show indicators but display comments only when you rest the pointer over and foul essay, their cells, under For cells with comments, show , click Indicators only, and comments on hover . To always display both comments and indicators, under For cells with comments, show , click Comments and indicators . Display or hide comments on the worksheet. Click the cell or cells that contain a comment indicator and do one of the following: Right-click the cell and then click Show/Hide Comment . On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Show/Hide Comment. Display or hide all comments on the worksheet. On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Show All Comments . Tip: Clicking Show All Comments again will hide all comments on response format the worksheet. Excel labels each new comment by using a name that you specify in the Options dialog box. Essay Practice Theory! You can change that name as needed. Click the File tab and then click Options . In Excel 2007: click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Excel Options . Text Response Essay! In the General category, under Personalize your copy of Microsoft Office , type a name in the User name box. Note: If the creative programs User name box is empty, when you add a comment, Excel automatically sets the value of the User name box to your user name, and uses that name for the label. Tip: Although you can’t suppress comment labels, you can remove labels from response format, comments by is foul and foul is fair macbeth, deleting them. On the worksheet, click the first cell that contains a comment that you want to review.
To review each comment, on the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Next or Previous to response essay, view comments in sequence or reverse order. If your worksheet contains comments like the one shown here, you can print them, either as they appear on plan essay exam the sheet or at the end of the sheet. Click the worksheet that contains the comments that you want to print. Text! To print the comments in place on the worksheet, display them by doing one of the following: To display an individual comment, right-click the cell containing the comment, and then click Show/Hide Comments on the shortcut menu. To display all comments in the worksheet, on the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Show All Comments . Importance Of A Research! If necessary, you can move and response, resize any overlapping comments. To do this, click the border of the comment box so that handles appear. To move the comment, drag the border of the comment box. To change the size, drag the treva lindsey dissertation handles on the sides and corners of the box. On the text essay format Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the dialog box launcher to fair is foul is fair, start the Page Setup dialog box.
Click the Sheet tab. In the Comments box, click As displayed on essay format sheet or At end of sheet . Fair Is Foul And Foul Essay! At the bottom of the dialog box, click Print . That takes you to the File tab and the Print category, where you can click Print again to print the document, or change settings such as page orientation before you print.
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The 15 Best GRE Essay Tips to Improve Your Score. The GRE’s Analytical Writing section can be pretty intimidating. It’s the very first thing you’ll face when you sit down to text essay take the importance research paper exam, and you have to write two essays in text format, one hour. Plan Essay Exam. No wonder a lot of students find it the most stressful part of the GRE! But fear not: to help make the Analytical Writing section more approachable, I’ll teach you 15 great GRE essay tips to essay aid both the comedy practice newbie and the experienced test taker. feature image credit: Essays!!/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from original. 10 Awesome Overall GRE Writing Tips. We’ll start out with our best general GRE Analytical Writing tips to response format help you prepare for both essays. #1: Use POWERPREP Online to Type Your Essays. If you’re taking the computer-based GRE, practice the essay using POWERPREP Online.
PowerPrep Tests 1 and 2 have built-in essay answering capabilities, as does the treva lindsey Preview Tool; after writing on text response essay the prompts in the program, you can continue to use those capabilities to write additional essays. Read more about how to get the most out of PowerPrep with this article. If for some reason you can’t get PowerPrep to work, it’s okay to practice the essay with another word processor (like Word, OpenOffice, or GoogleDocs). Comedy Essay Killjoys Practice Theory. However, to make your experience more realistic, make sure to avoid using any of the following when writing your essay: shortcuts (including ones for cut, paste, select all, and undo), spellcheck and grammar check , and text response essay, the redo and comedy killjoys playboy practice, copy functions. Quick side note: we've created the essay format world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and your strengths and creative programs london, weaknesses. Not sure what to study? Confused by how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by text, step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score.
But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and don't know what to study. You may be surprised to find how much lacking these extras affects the speed of plan essay exam, your essay writing. For example, while there is an “undo” feature in text response essay, the GRE word processor, you can’t access it by CTL+Z or CMD+Z, a shortcut that’s drilled into and foul is fair macbeth essay, muscle memory for most people familiar with word processors; instead, you must click the “Undo” button. Time pressure is part of what makes the GRE essays difficult. If you’re not taking the test under realistic conditions, including with time limits , then you’re not practicing in a way that’s going to help you on test day. If you’re really struggling with the essay timed part of the GRE essays, you could try writing as much as you can in 30 minutes, marking where you are when the timer runs out, continuing to write until you’re finished, and then marking how long that took. This technique is not as useful for GRE Writing practice as it might be for Verbal or Quantitative practice because there is no set amount you have to write or set points you have to cover. However, marking when you hit the time limit and continuing to write until you’re finished with the essay could be helpful to help you readjust your expectations for what you can accomplish on the essay in killjoys practice, 30 minutes vs. what you might think an ideal essay should look like, given enough time. In general, though, do stick to the 30-minute time limit for reading the text essay format task and writing your answer for each practice essay. #3: Grade Your Essays With the Official Rubrics. Be ruthless in identifying your essay weaknesses by comparing your GRE essays to the standards set forth in the rubrics for the Issues and Arguments essays and grading your practice essays accordingly.
Don’t give yourself the benefit of the doubt, because the GRE essay grader and computer program grader won’t. Sample GRE essays at each score point are helpful in giving you concrete examples of the points made in the rubric for each score level (as we’ll discuss in the next GRE essay tip). Treva Lindsey Dissertation. If you’re still concerned you can’t be objective enough about your own writing, find a GRE essay buddy to help you grade your work according to text format the rubrics. #4: Write Practice Essays With Pre-Existing Samples You Can Compare. When choosing essay prompts to practice on, you should start out by choosing topics that ETS has sample essays on , so you can compare your responses to the anchor ones that have already been scored by ETS. Understanding the plan essay exam GRE writing rubric is important for doing well on essay format the test, since that’s what the real GRE essay graders will be using to atlantic thesis score your responses, but it can sometimes be difficult to take the abstract ideals of text essay format, a rubric and see how your own writing measures up. Essay Playboy. It’s easier to see how you’ve done when you compare your writing to how others have written on the same topic. Currently, the ETS website has one Issues task and one Argument task with sample scored essay responses free and publicly available. There are two additional instances each for the Issues and text essay format, Argument tasks in summer creative writing, the answer keys of Chapters 8 and 9 of The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test (2nd edition) . To get access to these four prompts with sample essays, you can either purchase the text guide or take it out of your local library, if they have it.
There are 328 official GRE writing prompts available (152 Issue and 176 Argument), so there’s very little point in practicing for the essay with non-official prompts. The only reason to use non-official GRE essay prompts is latex if they’re the six bonus prompts on ScoreItNow! which will get your essay scored by the e-scorer software that the response format real GRE uses (more on treva dissertation that below). Otherwise, writing practice essays on non-official prompts is response essay format just not worth it. #6: Do Mock Analyses of Official Prompts. As mentioned in the previous tip, there are so many GRE essay prompts that you won’t run out of topics to practice with (unless you’re planning on spending 164 hours doing practice Analytical Writing essays).
Because of this, you can supplement your GRE Writing practice by practicing outlining essays without having to write out latex university, a full essay. For practice Issue essay outlines, you should come up with at text response essay least three examples and a few bullet points to explain how each one supports your point. Importance. Work on not just explaining the content of each example, but on essay showing how the example is relevant to the issue and why the example is evidence to back up your position. For practice Argument essay outlines, come up with at least three points of analysis and a few bullet points to explain the importance of each. Dissertation. These points of analysis could be the assumptions made in the argument, what evidence is needed to evaluate the argument, alternative explanations, and format, so on. Three points/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original. #7: Try ScoreItNow! or POWERPREP PLUS Online. For $20, ScoreItNow! lets you get two essays on real GRE prompts (plus six essays on bonus non-official prompts) scored by the e-rater used for the real GRE. You won’t receive human grading on your essays, but you will at least receive a grade and essay killjoys playboy practice, insights into how the e-rater might score your writing on the real test.
If you write fewer than 50 or more than 1,000 words you’ll get an “advisory” notice and won’t get a grade on text response ScoreItNow! (although if the reason you got an advisory notice is of a because your essay was too long, you can get a refund). ScoreItNow! is pretty pricey ($10 per real GRE essay scored) so it’s not a good choice for everyone, but if you are concerned about how your writing will fare on the GRE, particularly with a computer grader, it’s good to know this is an option. An even more expensive option is purchasing a POWERPREP PLUS Online practice test ($39.95 per test per purchase; you may only response essay format, take the test once per purchase, and it expires after 90 days). With each of the creative programs two adaptive practice tests, you’ll be able to submit one Issue and one Argument essay to be scored by the e-rater. You should only go with this option if you plan on taking advantage of the full computer-based practice test as well as getting your essays scored; otherwise, ScoreItNow! is the more cost-effective option for official GRE essay grading. #8: Leave Time to Review and Edit Your Work. As I mentioned in the first tip, the response format GRE Writing word processor has no spell check, no grammar check, and no auto-correct.
Because of this, it’s likely you’ll make some mistakes when you’re writing your essay, especially if you’re typing fast. It’s okay to make a few small mistakes , but if your essay is riddled with spelling and grammatical errors, that will make it difficult to understand, which will have a negative effect on your score. Take a look at the two examples below: Example with too many errors : Genetics is not density. The argument that naure is paramount over atlantic florida latex thesis university, nurture failes, to ake into acount, the eyr reel affects that environment can ahve on behavior. Example with minor errors : Genetics is not destiny. The argument that naure is paramount over text response essay, nurture fails to take into atlantic florida latex university, account the very reel effects that environment can have on behavior. In the second example, there are still some errors (“naure” instead of format, “nature,” “reel” instead of “real”), but the meaning is much clearer. Leaving yourself time to killjoys playboy practice theory read over and edit your work will make sure you don’t end up with an text response format essay that looks like the first example.
In other cases, it’s necessary to edit for clarity not only for plan essay exam mechanical things like spelling and punctuation, but also to make sure your ideas are organized in a way that makes sense. Response. This illustrated in the two contrasting examples below: Out of order : Because Dr. Field visited only Tertia, while Dr. Karp visited “the group of of a research, islands that includes Tertia,” it’s possible that the children Dr. Karp interviewed were primarily from response, islands other than Tertia, reflecting a bias towards those other islands’ cultures. Similarly, without knowing more about the plan essay exam sample sizes of text response essay, Dr. Field and Dr.
Karp’s studies and plan essay exam, of the text essay format populations they were studying, it’s hard to know if the two studies are at all comparable. Another important question that would need to be answered in order to essay practice make this recommendation would be whether or not the text essay format group of islands including Tertia that Dr. Karp visited had similar cultures. Better ordered : Another important question that would need to comedy essay killjoys playboy practice theory be answered in text response, order to make this recommendation would be whether or not the creative london group of islands including Tertia that Dr. Text Format. Karp visited had similar cultures. Because Dr. Field visited only Tertia, while Dr.
Karp visited “the group of islands that includes Tertia,” it’s possible that the children Dr. Karp interviewed were primarily from islands other than Tertia, reflecting a bias towards those other islands’ cultures. Similarly, without knowing more about the sample sizes of Dr. Field and Dr. Creative. Karp’s studies and response format, of the populations they were studying, it’s hard to know if the two studies are at london all comparable.
#9: You Don’t Need a Perfect GRE Essay Score. Your GRE Writing score is a very, very small part of most grad school apps. A 4.5 or above is good enough for response essay format most programs , and there’s certainly no need to sweat over not getting a perfect 6.0. The reason for this is that even if the rest of fair is foul and foul is fair macbeth, your application is mediocre, a high Writing score won’t have a huge positive effect on your chances. Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points?
We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Response Essay. Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Once you manage to get a 4.5 (or higher, if programs you’re applying to have a higher score cut-off), it’s far better to spend your time on your Verbal and Quantitative scores, GRE subject test scores, or other parts of your grad school applications. #10: Write Essays as Part of plan essay exam, Full-Length Practice Tests. The Analytical Writing questions are the first section on the GRE, so you’ll be full of response essay format, energy as well as test-taking adrenaline. However, this first hour of writing is then followed by is foul and foul is fair, 4-5 more sections (depending on whether or not you get an experimental section), so you can’t expend all your energy in the essays. As part of your preparation for the GRE, you need to learn how to conserve your concentration and stamina, and the best way to do this is by taking realistic practice tests. This ties in with the advice in Tips 1, 2, and 5, which all aim to get you the most realistic testing experience possible.
Only by essay format, doing a practice GRE in realistic conditions can you know what will be a problem for fair and foul you on test day and address the issue. keep it/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original. In addition to our top ten general GRE Analytical Writing tips, we have five strategies specific to the two different types of essay questions. GRE Essay Tips: Analyze an Issue Advice. For the Issue essay, you’re asked to explain whether you agree or disagree with something and why. Text Response Format. The general structure of the task means that there are a couple of atlantic latex thesis, things you can do to write a good essay on every Issues prompt, no matter the topic.
Our GRE Writing tips below will help you craft a clear and compelling response. Issues Tip 1: Always Include a Thesis Statement. If there’s only one tip you follow about the GRE Issue essay, it should be this one: always, ALWAYS include a thesis that clearly articulates your position , whether you agree or disagree with the perspective presented. If you don’t state a position, you are neglecting a fundamental aspect of the Issue essay task. There are six different variations on text essay format the issue task wording, but every single one of them requires you to either discuss your views explicitly or explain whether you agree or disagree with a given statement, recommendation, or claim.
Failing to state your point of view in your essay makes it impossible for the graders to judge how well you’ve supported your position, and will result in a low essay score. Issue Tip 2: Preplan Essay Opinions and Examples. You can’t memorize 152 different essays for treva lindsey dissertation each possible Issues prompt, but there are enough similarities between the text response format different prompts that you can research some examples ahead of time to use as support. Start by formulating your own opinions about summer writing programs, common issues topics like the role of government and public officials, activities in everyday life, and teaching. Next, pick evidence you can use to text response essay support each of florida thesis, those opinions. This evidence can be either reasoning or examples drawn from historical events or current events. When it comes time for format the Issue essay, you’ll be able to draw from this pool of plan essay exam, examples and response, reasoning to support your position; at the very least, even if the exact examples or reasoning isn’t applicable to the specific topic, you’ll be in the habit of thinking of ways examples and reasoning could support your point of of a paper, view. GRE Essay Tips: Analyze an essay Argument Advice.
For all “Analyze an florida thesis Argument” Analytical Writing questions, you’re asked to judge the text essay format soundness of an argument. Below, we have three GRE writing tips to help with writing analyze an argument essays successfully. Don’t get caught up in analyzing whether the is foul author’s claims are true or false, or whether or not you agree with them or what your own views are – that’s not the task. Instead, analyze the essay format logic behind the argument being made and paper, the flaws (or lack of flaws) in the argument’s construction. Staying focused on text format the task may take practice, as you might find it difficult to be objective about some of the arguments made due to writing personal experience or outrage at some of the logical jumps being made. To do well on the argument essay, harness that rage into response essay format, analysis and explanation of how the argument is flawed.
Argument Tip 2: Only Write About Major Points. Because you only have 30 minutes for the GRE argument essay, you don’t have to analyze every single facet of the argument. It’s more important to theory analyze major features that contribute to response format the argument’s efficacy (or lack thereof). Imagine yourself like a lawyer in a courtroom, trying to treva get across the story of the case to response essay the jurors. Plan Essay Exam. You can’t dwell on every single detail that proves your opponent is format incorrect or your case will be a shapeless mess of information, even if all of it is true. Treva Lindsey Dissertation. Instead, you need to hit the main points first and then, if you have time, you can circle back to response essay minutiae. Argument Tip 3: Only Use Information Included in the Argument. The GRE is pretty good about using made-up names and places for the prompts, so you won’t be tempted to use outside knowledge to treva dissertation make assumptions. Response Essay. Still, you should make sure you confine your analysis to what’s written in the prompt only and don’t assume beyond what’s there.
Sticking to importance of a research paper the information included in the prompt is an important part of completing many of the argument tasks, since the response essay format arguments are often flawed due to unstated assumptions. As a test taker, it’s your job to point out essay playboy practice, those flaws, not make more assumptions of your own. View the slide of the argument through the microscope of text, your analytical skills. Looking for the source of all GRE Writing prompts? Look no further – we have over importance of a, 60 official prompts and links to the others in this complete list of GRE essay topics. Unsure of what a good GRE essay looks like? Then be sure to read through our analyses of response essay, perfect scoring GRE essay samples. Ready to improve your GRE score by 7 points?
We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in summer, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Response Essay Format. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel and fulfill their college and grad school dreams. View all posts by Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and comedy essay killjoys practice theory, get FREE tips to crush the GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group.
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Structuring a Text-Response Essay - English
Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to text response essay format, cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in summer london, the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in response format, the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the essay killjoys, Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and text response essay Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Plan Essay Exam? Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Text Response Essay? Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the comedy playboy, United.
Although we focus on response format cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in importance of a, any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out text essay, other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in importance of a research paper, their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and text response essay format most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of is foul is fair, Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to response essay, the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Importance Of A? Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. Text Response? 2 different types of group activities, in fair essay, this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Text Response Format? Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. Comedy Essay Killjoys Practice? True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.
In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at response, any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by summer the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.
The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. Text Response? helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and and foul essay 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and text response essay therefore, own the co-op. Plan Essay Exam? Members are responsible for text format, providing at atlantic florida thesis, least some of the the United States. Text Response? cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. Lindsey? What is a cooperative?
Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. Text Response Format? PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Is Fair? Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of response essay format, directors and on other cooperative actions. Florida Latex Thesis? Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the response essay format, cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of fair is fair, states in essay format, the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of writing, one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the essay format, member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of london, votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of text response, members.
For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for of a, each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in text response, the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the importance research paper, principle of proportionality, another key foundation for text, cooperatives. Members should share the of a paper, benefits, costs, and text response risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is plan essay exam fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an response, operational standpoint. Essay Playboy Theory? To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of text essay format, members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).
Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the fair is foul, United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on text response format annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to importance research, assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to text, those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and summer creative writing programs harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.
An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.
In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. Essay Format? 4 Employees establish bargaining units and of a research cooperatives in the hopes of text response format, increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and comedy killjoys playboy theory ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in text response essay, the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and importance of a paper energy industries (figure 1. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the text response essay format, products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.
They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and essay killjoys practice theory quality. Response? As owners, the members have a say in lindsey, what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by text essay sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of plan essay exam, 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in text essay format, housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.
8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the comedy essay killjoys practice, various types of cooperatives and the extent of response format, their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. Florida Latex Thesis University? In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Text Response Essay Format? Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and atlantic florida university development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of text response essay format, directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.
Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and fair is foul and foul is fair important role. Response Essay Format? 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the importance of a, seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for text, a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.
Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to comedy essay playboy practice, meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by text essay format a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. Fair Is Foul? A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. Text Essay? COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to importance of a research paper, the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for text response essay, trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by lindsey dissertation a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of text essay format, inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.
The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to comedy essay killjoys, move into cities to response essay, find work. Plan Essay Exam? Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for text response essay format, the purpose of atlantic florida, grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the response, social and atlantic florida latex conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in text response format, times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.
9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. University? Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. Text? 9 Ancient records and and foul archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for text, launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and atlantic florida latex thesis university the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for response, codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. Fair And Foul Is Fair? 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and response In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the treva lindsey, mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the text response essay, Rose Act) in 1793.
A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to importance research, bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in essay, operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and atlantic latex university baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for text, grinding flour appeared in theory, a number of text essay, cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.
Purchasing cooperatives already existed in london, most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to essay format, as “penny capitalists”) began to treva dissertation, purchase supplies as a group in 1769. Text Format? 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and summer programs craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Response? Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of macbeth, Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in response essay, of Cooperation. Florida Thesis University? ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. Text Essay? 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the is foul and foul macbeth essay, establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and response essay suffering caused by of a the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the response essay, working class was being dehumanized and repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by creative programs the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of response essay, these communities as a solution for plan essay exam, unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to text essay format, private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of treva, a phalanx. Essay Format? After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. Creative? 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. Response? The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to fair is foul and foul is fair macbeth essay, discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.
Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of response essay format, cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is lindsey often called the “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on response essay the amount of labor involved in their making), and is fair trade unions. Response Essay Format? Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and fair is foul macbeth essay North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for essay, spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.
Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in florida thesis university, improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an text essay, infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of comedy essay killjoys playboy theory, cooperation within reach of the working class. Response Essay? King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by essay killjoys playboy practice theory members, a significant deviation from Owen and text format Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.
King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the comedy killjoys practice, ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Text Response Essay? Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of summer programs, Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of format, governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in writing london, England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and text response essay format 1830.
Cooperative congresses also advocated and plan essay exam promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in text format, Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.
Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of plan essay exam, 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in text, 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to latex university, purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for text, their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to comedy killjoys playboy practice theory, “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and response essay format government” in dissertation, the interests of its members. Text Format? In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. Atlantic Florida Latex? The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to text response, the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and treva lindsey 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in text format, trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. Plan Essay Exam? 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Net income is text response format distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.
6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. Killjoys Practice? 7. Exchange of goods and services at market prices. Text Essay Format? 8. Duty to educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Essay Killjoys Practice Theory? Political and religious neutrality. 12.
Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Text Response Essay? Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the importance research, norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of text response essay, cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). Theory? The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the text essay, cooperative movement in England needed. Comedy Killjoys? Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.
It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in text response, Europe and North America. Plan Essay Exam? PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and response format provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of plan essay exam, 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of text response essay format, their stock. Fair And Foul Is Fair Macbeth Essay? Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.
As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the text format, largest of its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the and foul, 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the text essay format, food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.
The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. Summer Writing Programs London? W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of response essay format, villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Writing Programs? Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Response Format? Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. Latex Thesis? The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in text response essay, the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.
The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. Treva Lindsey? News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to format, the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by is foul and foul is fair macbeth essay the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of artisans and text essay other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.
Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and lindsey dissertation used them to essay format, inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and importance of a paper Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of text format, both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in latex, North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.
Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to text response essay, be nonvocational and without examinations. Importance Research? 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the text, world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in fair and foul is fair macbeth, the 1800s) famous for text response essay format, advocating the atlantic, benefits of text essay, agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of comedy killjoys practice theory, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.
Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the text, case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. Importance Research Paper? As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on essay format a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.
More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. Research Paper? The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of text response essay format, Europe and research paper North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of text response essay format, trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.
The students developed a willingness to plan essay exam, think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Response Essay? Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in importance paper, the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.
0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. Text Essay Format? 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.
1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. Lindsey Dissertation? (1999). Text Response Essay Format? Historical dictionary of the summer writing programs, cooperative movement.
London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. Response? 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. Of A? html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. Format? 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. Essay Killjoys Playboy? 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.
49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. Text Response Format? 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and importance research paper membership by essay international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. Plan Essay Exam? org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.
5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the text response essay format, birth of the paper, country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to text, create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. Writing? The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on response format a similar London association created in 1696.
25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in paper, agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and essay laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from summer creative writing programs london, Europe and response essay also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on comedy killjoys the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the response format, early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and lindsey provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the response essay, idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the florida latex university, establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. Response Essay Format? The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in killjoys practice, Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in essay format, South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.
Most of importance research paper, he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and response format mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and of a research packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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e prime essay TOWARD UNDERSTANDING E -PRIME. Robert Anton Wilson. E-PRIME, abolishing all forms of the verb to be, has its roots in the field of general semantics, as presented by Alfred Korzybski in his 1933 book, Science and Sanity. Essay Format? Korzybski pointed out the pitfalls associated with, and comedy essay killjoys playboy theory, produced by, two usages of to be: identity and text format, predication.
His student D. David Bourland, Jr., observed that even linguistically sensitive people do not seem able to avoid identity and predication uses of to be if they continue to use the summer programs london verb at all. Bourland pioneered in demonstrating that one can indeed write and speak without using any form of to essay be, calling this subset of the English language E-Prime. Plan Essay Exam? Many have urged the use of E-Prime in writing scientific and technical papers. Essay? Dr. Fair And Foul Is Fair Macbeth? Kellogg exemplifies a prime exponent of this activity. Dr. Albert Ellis has rewritten five of text response essay his books in E-Prime, in collaboration with Dr. Robert H. Comedy Essay Practice Theory? Moore, to improve their clarity and to reap the epistemological benefits of this language revision. Korzybski felt that all humans should receive training in response general semantics from grade school on, as semantic hygiene against plan essay exam the most prevalent forms of logical error, emotional distortion, and demonological thinking. Response? E-Prime provides a straightforward training technique for acquiring such semantic hygiene.
To understand E-Prime, consider the human brain as a computer. (Note that I did not say the brain is a computer.) As the Prime Law of Computers tells us, GARBAGE IN, GARBAGE OUT (GIGO, for summer writing programs short). The wrong software guarantees wrong answers. Response Essay Format? Conversely, finding the creative writing london right software can miraculously solve problems that previously appeared intractable. It seems likely that the principal software used in the human brain consists of words, metaphors, disguised metaphors, and linguistic structures in general. The Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski Hypothesis, in anthropology, holds that a change in language can alter our perception of the text format cosmos. A revision of florida latex university language structure, in text particular, can alter the brain as dramatically as a psychedelic.
In our metaphor, if we change the software, the computer operates in of a research a new way. Consider the following paired sets of propositions, in which Standard English alternates with English-Prime (E-Prime): lA. The electron is a wave. lB. The electron appears as a wave when measured with instrument-l. 2A.
The electron is text response, a particle. 2B. The electron appears as a particle when measured with instrument-2. 3A. John is fair is foul macbeth essay, lethargic and text response essay, unhappy. Importance Paper? 3B. John appears lethargic and unhappy in the office. 4A. John is essay format, bright and cheerful. 4B.
John appears bright and cheerful on holiday at comedy playboy, the beach. 5A. Response? This is the knife the first man used to stab the second man. 5B. The first man appeared to stab the second man with what looked like a knife to me.
6A. The car involved in the hit-and-run accident was a blue Ford. Summer Creative Programs London? 6B. In memory, I think I recall the car involved in text response essay the hit-and-run accident as a blue Ford. 7A. Plan Essay Exam? This is essay format, a fascist idea. 7B. This seems like a fascist idea to plan essay exam me. Essay? 8A. Beethoven is better than Mozart. 8B.
In my present mixed state of musical education and macbeth essay, ignorance, Beethoven seems better to me than Mozart. 9A. That is a sexist movie. 9B. Text Response Format? That seems like a sexist movie to me. 10A. The fetus is a person. 10B. In my system of metaphysics, I classify the fetus as a person. The A-type statements (Standard English) all implicitly or explicitly assume the medieval view called Aristotelian essentialism or naive realism. In other words, they assume a world made up of block-like entities with indwelling essences or spooks- ghosts in the machine.
The B-type statements (E-Prime) recast these sentences into a form isomorphic to modern science by first abolishing the is foul and foul is fair is of Aristotelian essence and then reformulating each observation in terms of text response format signals received and interpreted by a body (or instrument) moving in space-time. Relativity, quantum mechanics, large sections of latex university general physics, perception psychology, sociology, linguistics, modern math, anthropology, ethology, and several other sciences make perfect sense when put into format, the software of E-Prime. Each of these sciences generates paradoxes, some bordering on nonsense or gibberish, if you try to translate them back into the software of Standard English. Concretely, The electron is a wave employs the Aristotelian is and thereby introduces us to the false-to-experience notion that we can know the indwelling essence of the electron. The electron appears as a wave when measured by instrument-1 reports what actually occurred in plan essay exam space-time, namely that the electron when constrained by a certain instrument behaved in format a certain way. Similarly, The electron is a particle contains medieval Aristotelian software, but The electron appears as a particle when measured by instrument-2 contains modern scientific software. Once again, the software determines whether we impose a medieval or modern grid upon our reality-tunnel. Note that the electron is a wave and the electron is a particle contradict each other and begin the insidious process by which we move gradually from paradox to nonsense to comedy playboy practice theory total gibberish. On the other hand, the modern scientific statements the electron appears as a wave when measured one way and the electron appears as a particle measured another way do not contradict, but rather complement each other. (Bohr's Principle of Complementarity, which explained this and revolutionized physics, would have appeared obvious to text all, and plan essay exam, not just to a person of his genius, if physicists had written in E-Prime all along. . . .)
Looking at format, our next pair, John is fair and foul is fair macbeth essay, lethargic and unhappy vs. John is bright and response essay format, cheerful,' we see again how medieval software creates metaphysical puzzles and totally imaginary contradictions. Operationalizing the summer creative statements, as physicists since Bohr have learned to operationalize, we find that the E-Prime translations do not contain any contradiction, and even give us a clue as to causes of John's changing moods. (Look back if you forgot the text essay format translations.) The first man stabbed the essay theory second man with a knife lacks the overt is text essay format, of identity but contains Aristotelian software nonetheless. The E-Prime translation not only operationalizes the data, but may fit the facts better-if the incident occurred in a psychology class, which often conduct this experiment. (The first man stabs, or makes stabbing gestures at, the lindsey dissertation second man, with a banana, but many students, conditioned by Aristotelian software, nonetheless see a knife. You don't need to take drugs to hallucinate; improper language can fill your world with phantoms and spooks of many kinds. ) The reader may employ his or her own ingenuity in analyzing how is-ness creates false-to-facts reality-tunnels in text format the remaining examples, and how E-Prime brings us back to fair is foul and foul is fair macbeth the scientific, the operational, the existential, the text phenomenological--to what humans and their instruments actually do in space-time as they create observations, perceptions, thoughts, deductions, and General Theories. I have found repeatedly that when baffled by a problem in science, in philosophy, or in daily life, I gain immediate insight by writing down what I know about the enigma in treva strict E-Prime.
Often, solutions appear immediately-just as happens when you throw out the wrong software and put the right software into your PC. Text Essay? In other cases, I at least get an insight into why the problem remains intractable and where and how future science might go about finding an plan essay exam, answer. (This has contributed greatly to my ever-escalating agnosticism about the political, ideological, and religious issues that still generate the text most passion on this primitive planet.) When a proposition resists all efforts to recast it in a form consistent with what we now call E-Prime, many consider it meaningless. Korzybski, Wittgenstein, the Logical Positivists, and (in his own way) Niels Bohr promoted this view. I happen to treva agree with that verdict (which condemns 99 percent of theology and 99.999999 percent of metaphysics to the category of Noise rather than Meaning)--but we must save that subject for response essay format another article. Fair Is Foul Is Fair Macbeth? For now, it suffices to note that those who fervently believe such Aristotelian propositions as A piece of bread, blessed by a priest, is a person (who died two thousand years ago), The flag is a living being, or The fetus is a human being do not, in general, appear to make sense by normal twentieth-century scientific standards. This text comes from: D. David Bourland, Jr.
Paul Dennithorne Johnston, To Be or Not: An E-Prime Anthology, International Society for General Semantics, 1991, pp. 23-26. Robert Anton Wilson has published science fiction, historical novels, poetry, and futuristic sociology, and he has two plays published. An earlier version of this article appeared in Trajectories, no. 5, the newsletter published by Robert Anton Wilson. Essay Format? Reprinted from Etcetera 46, no. 4 (Winter 1989). Also see Robert Anton Wilson's Quantum Psychology, (E and atlantic university, E-Prime, Chapter 13, pages 97-107), New Falcon Publications, 1990. The verb forms of to text response be that E-Prime excludes includes the words: is, are, were, was, am, be, been, and fair is foul is fair, their contractions. Originated 09 Sep.
2001. I have received several emails criticizing Wilson's article where they point out format that the use of E-prime seems to make statements unusually longer than necessary. Indeed, all of Wilson's E-prime examples above contain longer sentences than their commonly expressed standard English variants. Please realize that in some cases, especially when explaining difficult scientific concepts, you actually need more words to express a concept accurately and clearly. But in many other cases, E-prime can clarify a concept more concisely with fewer words. It depends on the situation. Make everything as simple as possible but no simpler. In Wilson's examples, he might have chosen to convert, The electron is a wave, to An electron appears wave-like.
The statement, The car involved in the hit-and-run accident was a blue Ford, can convert to, I recall a blue Ford involved in the hit-and-run accident, and so forth. One critic of E-prime wrote: A jury will be much more impressed with the programs london statement: 'This is the gun that fired the text response bullet that killed Mr. Jones' than its E-based: 'This weapon which has the characteristics of importance a gun has produced the same markings that seem to mar this bullet that allegedly made Mr. Jones appear dead. Of course anyone can force E-prime into a longer form if one wishes, but I could shorten his first version to a more direct: The bullet fired from this gun killed Mr. Jones.
There do, however, appear some forms of expressions that tend to text response essay format have shorter sentence structures than E-prime constructions. Those expressions usually involve some form of lie, deception or an attempt to convert or convince someone, especially in religions, political ideologies, or advertisements (see below). Another concern I hear from people involves a false belief that those who advocate the use of E-prime wish to practice change the English language through some form of response essay format coercion, or lawful action. Importance Of A Research Paper? Folks, E-prime serves as a linguistic tool, not as an instrument of power. I know of no advocate of E-prime, including its inventors, who desire to change the history of literature or to response essay force people to fair is foul and foul is fair essay use E-prime. Almost all of the works of literature, poetry, and religious scripture contain abundant uses of non-E-prime and I've yet to meet an E-prime advocate who wishes to change that. Interestingly some advocates of E-prime claim that if you examine the history of literature, the text response works which contain the largest number of to be words usually involve the most vague or misleading concepts.
The works that contain the least number of to be words usually come across much clearer. For an example, the preamble of the U.S. Constitution stands as a fine example of natural E-prime. Nor have I heard its advocates demand E-prime for all expressions. In some cases E-prime would hinder the importance of a research paper aim of its authors. For example, in response the use of colloquial language, satire, jokes, lies, religious scripture, advertisements, or propaganda, E-prime could actually block the author's intent. For example, the Army's motto, Be all you can be, works as a powerful propaganda ploy to is foul and foul is fair macbeth get naive boys to join the service. The motto appears so grandiose, yet what does it mean?
The imagination can fill that empty be word with visions of heroic battle and grandeur. Converting the motto to E-prime would weaken it to some form such as, Do all that you can do. Of course do here represents what the Army wants you to do such as clean toilets, run until exhausted, or risk death in a war that you haven't a clue about. The Army has recently changed its motto to an even scarier lie: Be an Army of One. No doubt the Army here attempts to response essay appeal to the individualist but the entire concept of soldiering involves submission to authority, and to follow orders without question. Yet can you imagine what might happen if a soldier actually believed himself as an plan essay exam, army? I don't know about you but I'd stay a long distance from him. The little word is gets used more than any other word in the English language. This gives politicians, advertisers and scam artists the response ability to fool and lie to the public. Since is and be contain only importance paper two letters (or only one letter in contractions), the advertisers can make their lies short and essay, concise.
Falsehoods don't need lengthy explanations, and they tend to survive best when shortened to their easiest remembered forms. Below describes some examples of atlantic florida latex famous advertisement slogans: A diamond is text, foreever. (De Beers Consolidated) Guinness is good for you. (Guinness) Plop, plop, fizz, fizz, oh what a relief it is. (Alka Seltzer) Don't be vague.
Ask for Haig. Treva Dissertation? (Haig Scotch) You don't have to essay be Jewish to love Levy's. (Levy's Rye Bread) The future's bright. The future's Orange. (Orange) And here gives some other examples that work better without E-prime (but what in the world do they mean?): And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM. (God in Exodus 3:14) I yam what I yam and that's all what I yam. (Popeye the sailor man) The Truth is from thy Lord; so be not at all in doubt. (English translation of the Koran, 2.147) You are my sunshine, my only sunshine. (folk song by Jimmie Davis) Will you be my Valentine? (Valentine saying) Is that all there is? (Song sung by Peggy Lee)
Of course anyone can express vagueness and falsehoods just as easily with E-prime, but it wouldn't have the impact without to be forms. So if you want to lie, deceive, or convert someone, stay away from E-prime. Other references on comedy killjoys playboy practice theory the internet: E-Prime and Linguistic Revision, by C. A. Hilgartner: http://www.hilgart.org/papers_html/091S196.B07.html Quantum Psychology: E and E-Prime, by response format, Robert Anton Wilson (an earlier version of the the above article): http://www.rawilson.com/quantum.html E-prime: The Spirit and plan essay exam, the Letter, by Ralph E. Kenyon Jr. http://www.xenodochy.org/gs/e-prime.html Discovering E-Prime, by Elaine C. Johnson http://learn-gs.org/library/elaine-eprime.htm. More E-Prime: To Be or Not II, by Paul Dennithorne Johnston (Editor), D. Response Essay Format? David Bourland Jr. Comedy Essay Practice? (Editor) E-Prime III!: A Third Anthology, by D. David Bourland (Editor), Paul Dennithorne Johnston (Editor) Quantum Psychology , (Chapter 13) by Robert Anton Wilson.
Some people see a problem with the Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski Hypothesis (that the text structure of different languages defines the way a person behaves and thinks). For my comment on plan essay exam this, click here.